1987 Constitution and July 2018
Consultative Committee
Draft Constitution, Side by Side

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This document contains all sections of the 1987 Constitution and the Draft Provisions created by the Consultative Committee to Review the 1987 Constitution (led by Justice Reynato Puno). The body of this document is contained in the two links, above: one for an Excel spreadsheet, and another as raw HTML, intended to help other bloggers to put this table onto their own sites. Both are absolutely free to use, as they contain public domain text. The Javascript used to generate the table of contents and other effects on this page is also free to use, as I am releasing it on the public domain.

You do not need to contact me to obtain permission to use them for your own purposes.

Comparable Articles and Sections are laid out side-by-side, to help readers identify differences between the documents. To preserve the order of Sections and Articles in the 1987 Constitution, the sections of the Draft Provisions may be reordered, or else a small note in green text is inserted pointing the reader to the appropriate Section within the same document. Notes are also inserted where Sections in the Draft Provisions are moved to an Article with a different number from that in the 1987 Constitution This reordering, for example in the section on National Economy and Patrimony may be slightly confusing; as may the presence of gaps. I hope this doesn’t detract from the usefulness of the format, intended for the purpose of locating document changes.

The Transitory Provisions enumerate transition-specific acts, and are an exception to the placement rule (match where comparable). The columns are to be treated as independent lists; sections in the Transitory Provisions are unrelated between the 1987 Constitution and the Draft Provisions.

Red entries in the table of contents identify new Articles.

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Note that there is no editorial content on this page – there is no discussion comparing the changes – so I’ve attached no commentary to the tables, not least because there’s a lot to take in. This is because I have no experience in reading the Constitution as a whole – as a document with a logic to it’s parts, and a history and reason for each sparsely worded section. There are risks to making editorial comments on documents like our Constitution and this Draft Proposal, of being utterly wrong in either my own assumptions or biases, and in my conclusions, and of thus misleading others about what is at stake.

I refuse to make that mistake.

On the other hand, putting these documents side-by-side might be mistaken for endorsement of this alternative to the 1987 Constitution. This is not an endorsement of the Consultative Committee’s work.

I most emphatically do not endorse either the Draft, or the way in which it was crafted. If anything, the fact that a private citizen published this – and that it is received with apparent interest two years after the transition was promised by PDP-Laban – should remind us that Filipino leaders, and this government, have a duty to inform the public about the vision that inspires this proposal. Justice Reynato Puno understands this well, and has campaigned long and hard, alongside many others, to pursue this dream. It is not clear that today’s politicians share that understanding.

A national dialogue on the vision behind this proposal – that is what citizens need to have with each other, across partisan divides. The depth of the changes in our Constitution cannot be accepted as fait accompli.

Demand that media and State officials analyze and discuss these documents with the depth both documents deserve. A certain wariness of trapo motives is strongly warranted these days.

Preamble

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, to build a permanent and indissoluble nation and establish a just, humane, united, and progressive society under a government that shall embody our shared ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution of the Federal Republic of the Philippines. We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, to build a permanent and indissoluble nation and establish a just, humane, united, and progressive society under a government that shall embody our shared ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution of the Federal Republic of the Philippines.

Article I
National Territory

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. SECTION 1. The Philippines has sovereignty over its territory, consisting of the islands and waters encompassed by its archipelagic baselines, its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the continental shelf, and its airspace. It has sovereignty over islands and features outside its archipelagic baselines pursuant to the laws of the Federal Republic, the law of nations and the judgments of competent international courts or tribunals. It likewise has sovereignty over other territories belonging to the Philippines by historic right or legal title. SECTION 1. The Philippines has sovereignty over its territory, consisting of the islands and waters encompassed by its archipelagic baselines, its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the continental shelf, and its airspace. It has sovereignty over islands and features outside its archipelagic baselines pursuant to the laws of the Federal Republic, the law of nations, and the judgments of competent international courts or tribunals. It likewise has sovereignty over other territories belonging to the Philippines by historic right or legal title.
SECTION 2. The Philippines has sovereign rights over that maritime expanse beyond its territorial sea to the extent reserved to it by international law, as well as over its extended continental shelf, including the Philippine Rise. Its citizens shall enjoy the right to all resources within these areas. SECTION 2. The Philippines has sovereign rights over that maritime expanse beyond its territorial sea to the extent reserved to it by international law, as well as over its extended continental shelf, including the Philippine Rise. Its citizens shall enjoy the right to all resources within these areas.

Article II
Declaration of Principles
and State Policies

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
Principles
SECTION 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. SECTION 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. The Republic shall uphold federalism, national unity, and territorial integrity. SECTION 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. The Republic shall at all times uphold federalism, national unity, and territorial integrity.
SECTION 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations. SECTION 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as a part of the law of the land, and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations. SECTION 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land, and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.
SECTION 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory. SECTION 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Government is the protector of the people and the Federal Republic. The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall secure the sovereignty of the Republic and the integrity of its national territory. The Government may call upon the people to defend the Federal Republic and render personal military or civil service, under conditions provided by federal law. SECTION 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The government is the protector of the people and the Federal Republic. The armed forces of the Philippines shall secure the sovereignty of the Republic and the integrity of its national territory. The government may call upon the people to defend the Federal Republic and render personal military or civil service under conditions provided by federal law.
SECTION 4. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal military or civil service.
SECTION 5. The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property, and the promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy. SECTION 4. The recognition of fundamental freedoms, the observance of the rule of law, and the promotion of sustainable human development are essential for the enjoyment by the people of the benefits of a democratic republican federal government. SECTION 4. The recognition of fundamental freedoms, the observance of the rule of law, and the promotion of sustainable human development are essential for the enjoyment by the people of the benefits of a democratic republican federal government.
SECTION 6. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.

SECTION 5. The separation of the church and the State shall be inviolable.

Relations between them shall be governed by benevolent neutrality.

SECTION 5. The separation of the church and the State shall be inviolable.

Relations between them shall be governed by benevolent neutrality.

State Policies
SECTION 7. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination. SECTION 6. The Federal Republic shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In establishing relations with other States, its paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination. SECTION 6. The Federal Republic shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In establishing relations with other states, its paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination.
SECTION 8. The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory. SECTION 7. The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from weapons of mass destruction in its territory. SECTION 7. The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from weapons of mass destruction in its territory.
SECTION 8. The Federal Republic shall maintain honesty, integrity, and efficiency in the public service and take positive, effective, deterrent, and punitive measures against graft and corruption. SECTION 8. The Federal Republic shall maintain honesty, integrity, and efficiency in the public service and take positive, effective, deterrent, and punitive measures against graft and corruption.
SECTION 9. The Federal Republic, hereby adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest. SECTION 9. The Federal Republic adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest.
SECTION 10. The Federal Republic and its instrumentalities shall, at all times, maintain the highest quality of governance, integrity, transparency, and accountability. SECTION 10. The Federal Republic and its instrumentalities shall, at all times, maintain the highest quality of governance, integrity, transparency, and accountability.
SECTION 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all. SECTION 11. The Federal Republic shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living befitting human dignity, and an improved quality of life for all. SECTION 11. The Federal Republic shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living befitting human dignity, and an improved quality of life for all.
SECTION 10. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. SECTION 12. The Federal Republic shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. SECTION 12. The Federal Republic shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.
SECTION 11. The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. SECTION 13. The Federal Republic values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for the human person and the right of all citizens to participate in all government processes. SECTION 13. The Federal Republic values the dignity of every person and guarantees full respect for the person and the right of all citizens to participate in all government processes.
SECTION 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government. SECTION 14. The Federal Republic recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the government. SECTION 14. The Federal Republic recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the government.
SECTION 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. SECTION 15. The Federal Republic recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their constructive involvement in public and civic affairs. SECTION 15. The Federal Republic recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation- building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their constructive involvement in public and civic affairs.
SECTION 14. The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men. SECTION 16. The Federal Republic recognizes the role of women in nation-building and in all aspects of national life, and shall ensure the fundamental equality of women and men before the law. SECTION 16. The Federal Republic recognizes the role of women in nation-building and in all aspects of national life, and shall ensure the fundamental equality of women and men before the law.
SECTION 15. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them. SECTION 17. The Federal Republic shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them. SECTION 17. The Federal Republic shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them.
SECTION 16. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. SECTION 18. The Federal Republic shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. SECTION 18. The Federal Republic shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.
SECTION 17. The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development. SECTION 19. The Federal Republic shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human dignity, security, liberation, and development. SECTION 19. The Federal Republic shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human dignity, security, liberation, and development.
SECTION 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. SECTION 20. The Federal Republic affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. SECTION 20. The Federal Republic affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare.
SECTION 19. The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos. SECTION 21. The Federal Republic shall develop an independent and competitive national economy actually and effectively controlled by Filipinos. SECTION 21. The Federal Republic shall develop an independent and competitive national economy actually and effectively controlled by Filipinos.
SECTION 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments. SECTION 22. The Federal Republic recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector in national development and encourages private enterprise. The State shall provide incentives to needed investments. SECTION 22. The Federal Republic recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector in national development and encourages private enterprise. The State shall provide incentives to needed investments.
SECTION 21. The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. SECTION 23. The Federal Republic shall promote industrialization, comprehensive rural agri-industrial development, and genuine agrarian reform. SECTION 23. The Federal Republic shall promote industrialization, comprehensive rural agri-industrial development, and agrarian reform with effective support services.
SECTION 24. The Federal Republic shall protect consumers from trade malpractices and from substandard or hazardous products. SECTION 24. The Federal Republic recognizes, promotes, and protects the rights of indigenous peoples within the framework of national unity and development.
SECTION 22. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development. SECTION 25. The Federal Republic recognizes, promotes, and protects the rights of indigenous peoples within the framework of national unity and development. SECTION 25. The Federal Republic shall promote civil society participation in the development of the welfare of the nation.
SECTION 23. The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based, or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation. SECTION 26. The Federal Republic shall promote civil society participation in the development of the welfare of the nation.
SECTION 24. The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation- building. SECTION 27. The Federal Republic recognizes the vital role of information communication technology in nation-building. It shall provide the policy environment for the full development of Filipino capability and the emergence of communication structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of the nation and the balanced flow of information into, out of, and across the country, in accordance with a policy that respects the freedom of speech and of the press. SECTION 26. The Federal Republic recognizes the vital role of information communication technology in nation-building.
SECTION 25. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments. SECTION 28. The Federal Republic shall promote the autonomy of local government units in accord with federalism. SECTION 27. The Federal Republic shall promote the autonomy of local government units in line with the principle of subsidiarity and in accord with federalism.
SECTION 26. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. See Article 5 (Suffrage and Political Rights), Section 8.
SECTION 27. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption. See Sections 8-10, above.

Article III
Bill of Rights

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
Civil and Political Rights
SECTION 1. The rights under this article are demandable against the State and non-state actors and their enforcement shall be consistent with international standards. SECTION 1. The rights under this article are demandable against the State and non-state actors, and their enforcement shall be consistent with international standards.
SECTION 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. SECTION 2. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. SECTION 2. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
SECTION 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. See Section 5, below. See Section 5, below
SECTION 3.
(1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law. SECTION 3. The right of persons to privacy shall be inviolable. Without lawful court order, all interference in personal and domestic relations, correspondence and data are proscribed. SECTION 3. The right of persons to privacy shall be inviolable. Without lawful court order, all interference in personal and domestic relations, correspondence, and data are proscribed.
SECTION 4. Data obtained about a person shall be used and processed only for purposes authorized by law. A person has the right to inquire from any government office or agency the information or data that has been obtained, stored, or processed about himself, and to demand, that such data and information be corrected or deleted, or in case of a private entity or person, that their use be enjoined. SECTION 4. Data obtained about a person shall be used and processed only for purposes authorized by law.A person has the right to inquire from any government office or agency the information or data that has been obtained, stored, or processed about himself, and to demand, that such data and information be corrected or deleted, or in case of a private entity or person, that their use be enjoined.
(2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.
See Section 2, above. SECTION 5. SECTION 5.
(a) The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. (a) The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable. No search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
(b) The prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizure shall extend to the conduct of unlawful unreasonable surveillance through technological, electronic, or any other means. In addition to the requirements for the issuance of a search warrant, a surveillance warrant shall particularly describe: (b) The prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizure shall extend to the conduct of unlawful unreasonable surveillance through technological, electronic, or any other means. In addition to the requirements for the issuance of a search warrant, a surveillance warrant shall particularly describe:
1. The purpose of the surveillance and the period within which the surveillance may be conducted; The purpose of the surveillance and the period within which the surveillance may be conducted;
2. The target individuals or entities and the type of information sought; 2) The target individuals or entities and the type of information sought;
3. The manner by which the surveillance is to be conducted and the means to be used, which as far as practicable shall be limited to achieve the purpose of the surveillance and to acquire the type of information sought; and 3) The manner by which the surveillance is to be conducted and the means to be used, which as far as practicable shall be limited to achieve the purpose of the surveillance and to acquire the type of information sought; and
4. The period within which the applicant may store recorded information, which shall be consistent with the purpose of the surveillance. 4) The period within which the applicant may store recorded information, which shall be consistent with the purpose of the surveillance.
(c) No surveillance warrant shall be granted except upon a showing that there are no other reasonable means of obtaining the information or evidence sought in the application. (c) No surveillance warrant shall be granted except upon a showing that there are no other reasonable means of obtaining the information or evidence sought in the application.
(d) The court shall specify the time for the service of the warrant, which may be after the conduct of the surveillance. Only information necessary to achieve the purpose of the warrant shall be admitted in evidence. All other information acquired shall be destroyed and deemed inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. (d) The court shall specify the time for the service of the warrant, which may be after the conduct of the surveillance. Only information necessary to achieve the purpose of the warrant shall be admitted in evidence. All other information acquired shall be destroyed and deemed inadmissible for any purpose in any proceedings.
See Section 3, above. SECTION 6.
(a) The privacy of communication in any form shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law. SECTION 6. The privacy of communication in any form shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise, as prescribed by law.
(b) Any evidence obtained in violation of Sections 4, 5 and 6 shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. Any evidence obtained in violation of Sections 4, 5, and 6 shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.
SECTION 4. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. SECTION 7. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. For this purpose, the local government units shall, among other things, establish appropriate freedom parks for the peaceful assembly of the people. SECTION 7. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. For this purpose, the local government units shall, among other things, establish appropriate freedom parks for the peaceful assembly of the people.
SECTION 5. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. SECTION 8. No law shall be enacted that establishes, favors or suppresses religion or its rejection; or that prohibits the free exercise and public expression of fundamental religious belief. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. SECTION 8. No law shall be enacted that establishes, favors, or suppresses religion or its rejection, or that prohibits the free exercise and public expression of fundamental religious belief. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights.
SECTION 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law. SECTION 9. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law. SECTION 9. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law.
SECTION 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents, and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. SECTION 10. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. SECTION 10. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
SECTION 8. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. SECTION 11. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. SECTION 11. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law, shall not be abridged.
SECTION 9. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. SECTION 12. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. SECTION 12. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.
SECTION 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. SECTION 13. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. SECTION 13. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.
See Section 15, below SECTION 14. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion, rebellion, or lawless violence, when the public safety requires it. Even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended, the privilege of the writs of amparo and habeas data and other protective writs may still be resorted to unless prejudicial to public order. SECTION 14. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion, rebellion, or lawless violence, when the public safety requires it. Even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended, the privilege of the writs of amparo and habeas data, and other protective writs may still be resorted to unless prejudicial to public order.
SECTION 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. SECTION 15. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. Members of the Philippine Bar may be required by the Supreme Court to provide free assistance to indigents before courts and quasi-judicial bodies, and other legal services. SECTION 15. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies, and adequate legal assistance, shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. Members of the Philippine Bar may be required by the Supreme Court to provide free assistance to indigents before courts and quasi-judicial bodies, and for other legal services.
SECTION 12. SECTION 16. SECTION 16.
(1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel. (a) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of a competent and independent counsel. (a) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of a competent and independent counsel.
(2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. (b) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. (b) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited.
(3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him. (c) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 20 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him. (c) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 20 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him.
(4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to and rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families. (d) The Congress law shall enact a law providing for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to and rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families. (d) The Congress shall by law provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to and rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families.
SECTION 17. SECTION 17.
SECTION 13. All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. (a) All persons accused of any crime shall be entitled to bail or to be released on recognizance. This right shall not be available in cases where the imposable penalty is reclusion perpetua or higher, and the evidence of guilt is strong as determined in summary proceedings. (a) All persons accused of any crime shall be entitled to bail or to be released on recognizance. This right shall not be available in cases where the imposable penalty is reclusion perpetua or higher, and the evidence of guilt is strong as determined in summary proceedings.
(b) When an indigent person is charged with an offense that would entitle him to probation and the risk of flight is low, he may be released on recognizance. (b) When an indigent person is charged with an offense that would entitle him to probation and the risk of flight is low, he may be released on recognizance.
The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. (c) The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. (c) The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended.
Excessive bail shall not be required. (d) Excessive bail shall not be required. (d) Excessive bail shall not be required.
SECTION 14. SECTION 18.
(1) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. (a) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. SECTION 18. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law.
(2) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable. (b) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused; Provided, that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused; Provided, that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable.
SECTION 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion when the public safety requires it. See Section 14, above. See Section 14, above.
SECTION 16. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies. SECTION 19. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies. SECTION 19. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.
SECTION 17. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. SECTION 20. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. SECTION 20. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
SECTION 18. SECTION 21. SECTION 21.
(1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations. (a) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations. No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations.
(2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. (b)No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.
SECTION 19. SECTION 22. SECTION 22.
(1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. (a) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. (a) Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua.
(2) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law. (b) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions is prohibited. It shall be the duty of the Federal Government, Federated Region and their local government units to provide for humane and adequate penal facilities. (b) The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee, or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions, is prohibited. It shall be the duty of the Federal Government, the Federated Regions, and their local government units to provide for humane and adequate penal facilities.
(c) Persons unjustly and wrongfully accused, convicted and imprisoned but subsequently acquitted shall be provided compensation by the State as provided by law. (c) Persons unjustly and wrongfully accused, convicted, and imprisoned but subsequently acquitted shall be provided compensation by the State as provided by law.
SECTION 20. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. SECTION 23. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. SECTION 23. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax.
SECTION 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. SECTION 24. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act is punished by a federal law, regional law, or an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. Provided, however, that double jeopardy shall not attach where the offended party is deprived of due process or where there is a finding of mistrial; or when the trial court acted with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction. SECTION 24. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act is punished by a federal law, regional law, or an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. Provided, however, that double jeopardy shall not attach where the offended party is deprived of due process or where there is a finding of mistrial, or when the trial court acted with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction.
SECTION 22. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. SECTION 25. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. SECTION 25. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.
Social and Economic Rights
SECTION 26. Every person has the right: (a) To adequate food; (b) To universal and comprehensive healthcare; (c) To complete, quality education; (d) To adequate and decent housing; and (e) To livelihood and employment opportunity. SECTION 26. Every person has the right to: (a) Adequate food;
(b) Universal and comprehensive healthcare;
(c) Complete, quality education;
(d) Adequate and decent housing; and
(e) Livelihood and employment opportunities.
SECTION 27. The Federal Republic shall adopt measures to guarantee the progressive realization of these rights. SECTION 27. The Federal Republic shall adopt measures to guarantee the progressive realization of these rights.
Environmental and Ecological Rights
SECTION 28. Every person in every generation has to right to: SECTION 28. Every person in every generation has the right to:
(a) To a healthful environment and a balanced ecology, clean air, clean water, clean soil, and clean surroundings; (a) A healthful environment and a balanced ecology, clean air, clean water, clean soil, and clean surroundings;
(b) To be protected from and seek compensation for damage to environment and ecology that is brought about by illegal and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources; and (b) Be protected from and seek compensation for damage to environment and ecology that is brought about by illegal and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources; and
(c) To seek immediate relief from the courts and appropriate governmental bodies through the writ of kalikasan and other protective writs against activities that threaten the environment and ecological balance. All doubts shall be resolved in favor of the right of the people to a healthful and balanced ecology. (c) Seek immediate relief from the courts and appropriate governmental bodies through the writ of kalikasan and other protective writs against activities that threaten the environment and ecological balance. All doubts shall be resolved in favor of the right of the people to a healthful and balanced ecology.

Article IV
Citizenship

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
SECTION 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines: SECTION 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines: SECTION 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:
(1) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution; (a) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution; (a) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;
(2) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines; (b) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines; (b) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines;
(3) Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and (c) Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and (c) Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and
(4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. (d) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law (d) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.
SECTION 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens. SECTION 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (c), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural born citizens. SECTION 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (c), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.
SECTION 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. SECTION 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. SECTION 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.
SECTION 4. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their act or omission they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it. SECTION 4. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their act or omission, they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it. SECTION 4. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their act or omission, they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it.
SECTION 5. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law. SECTION 5. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law. SECTION 5. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law.

Article V
Suffrage

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
Suffrage Suffrage and Political Rights Suffrage and Political Rights
SECTION 1. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law, who are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year and in the place wherein they propose to vote for at least six months immediately preceding the election. No literacy, property, or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage. SECTION 1. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law, who are at least eighteen (18) years of age, and domiciled in the Philippines for at least one (1) year and in the place wherein they propose to vote for at least six (6) months immediately preceding the election. No literacy, property, or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage. SECTION 1. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law, who are at least eighteen (18) years of age, and domiciled in the Philippines for at least one (1) year and in the place wherein they propose to vote for at least six (6) months immediately preceding the election. No literacy, property, or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage.
SECTION 2. The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad.
The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. Until then, they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot.

SECTION 2. (a) The Federal Republic shall guarantee a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. The domicile requirements under Section 1 hereof shall not apply to Filipinos residing or working overseas who are qualified absentee voters, as may be determined by federal law.

(b) The Federal Republic shall guarantee the public nature of elections, ensure full transparency and accessibility of the electoral process, and the verifiability and integrity of the electoral results, regardless of the mode of election.

SECTION 2. The Federal Republic shall guarantee a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. The domicile requirements under Section 1 hereof shall not apply to Filipinos residing or working overseas who are qualified absentee voters as may be determined by federal law.

The Federal Republic shall guarantee the public nature of elections, ensure full transparency and accessibility of the electoral process, and the verifiability and integrity of the electoral results, regardless of the mode of election.

SECTION 3. The Federal Congress shall ensure the right to vote of persons in need of assistance. SECTION 3. The Federal Congress shall ensure the right to vote of persons in need of assistance.
SECTION 4. The Federal Republic shall ensure the development and strengthening of political parties as mechanisms of citizen representation and democratic governance. SECTION 4. The Federal Republic shall ensure the development and strengthening of political parties as mechanisms of citizen representation and democratic governance.
(a) Every political party shall be registered with the Federal Commission on Elections which shall require that the political party submit its constitution and by-laws, platform, principles, policies and general program of government, a verified list of national officials, members of the executive board or its equivalent, and the heads of its regional, provincial, and highly urbanized city chapters. (a) Every political party shall be registered with the Federal Commission on Elections which shall require that the political party submit its constitution and by-laws, platform, principles, policies and general program of government, a verified list of national officials, members of the executive board or its equivalent, and the heads of its regional, provincial, and highly urbanized city chapters.
(b) Religious denominations and sects, and political parties which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreigner or foreign government shall not be registered. (b) Religious denominations and sects, and political parties which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreigner or foreign government shall not be registered.
(c) Financial contributions from foreigners or foreign governments and their agencies, and unlawful sources, given to political parties and their affiliated organizations, political coalitions, or candidates to influence the outcome of the election, constitute interference in national affairs, and shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Federal Commission on Elections, in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by federal law. (c) Financial contributions from foreigners or foreign governments and their agencies, and unlawful sources, given to political parties and their affiliated organizations, political coalitions, or candidates to influence the outcome of the election, constitute interference in national affairs, and shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Federal Commission on Elections, in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by federal law.
SECTION 5. The Federal Republic shall promote the development of political parties as democratic public institutions. SECTION 5. The Federal Republic shall promote the development of political parties as democratic public institutions.
(a) Political parties shall be freely established and open to all citizens who share the same party program, adhere to the party constitution, and practice party discipline. (a) Political parties shall be freely established and open to all citizens who share the same party program, adhere to the party constitution, and practice party discipline.
(b) Political parties shall develop a democratic system of internal decision-making and allow active citizen participation. (b) Political parties shall develop a democratic system of internal decision-making and allow active citizen participation.
(c) Political parties shall observe fair, honest, and democratic processes in nominating and selecting party officials and candidates for public office. (c) Political parties shall observe fair, honest, and democratic processes in nominating and selecting party officials and candidates for public office, which may include the marginalized and underrepresented sectors.
(d) Political parties shall pursue public education and promotion of democratic values in society. (d) Political parties shall pursue public education and promotion of democratic values in society.
(e) Political parties shall provide, as far as practicable, for equal representation of women candidates in every election. (e) Political parties shall provide, as far as practicable, for equal representation of women candidates in every election.
(f) The Federal Republic shall take affirmative action so that marginalized and underrepresented sectors may organize themselves into genuine political parties with clear and detailed platforms of government and capable representatives. (f) The Federal Republic shall take affirmative action so that marginalized and underrepresented sectors may organize themselves into genuine political parties with clear and detailed platforms of government and capable representatives.
SECTION 6. The Federal Republic shall regulate the campaign finance, both from public and private sources, of political parties and candidates in all elections. SECTION 6. The Federal Republic shall regulate the campaign finance, both from public and private sources, of political parties and candidates in all elections.
(a) The Federal Congress shall update laws on all election expenditures. (a) The Federal Congress shall update laws on all election expenditures.
(b) Financial contributions from religious organizations, foreigners and foreign governments, and illegal sources are prohibited. (b) Financial contributions from religious organizations, foreigners, foreign governments, and illegal sources are prohibited.
(c) There shall be a Democracy Fund, which shall serve as a repository of campaign funds. The Federal Commission on Elections shall administer the Democracy Fund and promulgate rules and regulations therefor. The Federal Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine and audit all funds pertaining to the Democracy Fund. (c) There shall be a Democracy Fund, which shall serve as a repository of campaign funds. The Federal Commission on Elections shall administer the Democracy Fund and promulgate rules and regulations therefor. The Federal Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine and audit all funds pertaining to the Democracy Fund.
(d) Any citizen who contributes at least ten thousand pesos (PhP 10,000.00) but not exceeding one hundred thousand pesos (PhP 100,000.00) to any registered political party or presidential candidate through the Democracy Fund shall be allowed a full credit against income tax due for the immediately preceding taxable year following the elections in which such political party or presidential candidate participated; Provided, that such amounts shall be subject to the proper adjustment promulgated by the Federal Commission on Elections. (d) Any citizen who contributes at least ten thousand pesos (PhP 10,000.00) but not exceeding one hundred thousand pesos (PhP 100,000.00) to any registered political party or presidential candidate through the Democracy Fund shall be allowed a full credit against income tax due for the taxable year coinciding with the elections in which such political party or presidential candidate participated; Provided, that such amounts shall be subject to proper adjustment under the rules promulgated by the Federal Commission on Elections.
(e) Any corporation, partnership, or association which contributes at least one hundred thousand pesos (PhP 100,000.00) but not exceeding three million pesos (PhP 3,000,000.00) to any registered political party or presidential candidate through the Democracy Fund shall be allowed a full credit against income tax due for the immediately preceding taxable year following the elections in which such political party participated; Provided, that such amounts shall be subject to the proper adjustment promulgated by the Federal Commission on Elections. (e) Any corporation, partnership, or association which contributes at least one hundred thousand pesos (PhP 100,000.00) but not exceeding three million pesos (PhP 3,000,000.00) to any registered political party or presidential candidate through the Democracy Fund shall be allowed a full credit against income tax due for the taxable year coinciding with the elections in which such political party participated; Provided, that such amounts shall be subject to proper adjustment under the rules promulgated by the Federal Commission on Elections.
(f) A fair share of political party campaign funds drawn from the Democracy Fund shall be allocated for women candidates. (f) A fair share of political party campaign funds drawn from the Democracy Fund shall be allocated for women candidates.
(g) Unless ordered by the Federal Electoral Court, all information pertaining to the contributors and the amount of their contributions shall only be deemed confidential and shall be made available only to the Federal Commission on Elections, the Federal Commission on Audit, and the Internal Revenue officials for purposes of regulation, auditing, and tax credit, respectively (g) Unless ordered by the Federal Electoral Court, all information pertaining to the contributors and the amount of their contributions shall be deemed confidential and shall be made available only to the Federal Commission on Elections, the Federal Commission on Audit, and the Internal Revenue officials for purposes of regulation, auditing, and tax credit, respectively.
Section 7. The Federal Republic shall ensure strong and cohesive political parties. SECTION 7. The Federal Republic shall ensure strong and cohesive political parties.
(a) Members of any political party elected to public office are prohibited from changing political parties within their term of office. (a) Members of any political party elected to public office are prohibited from changing political parties within their term of office.

(b) Candidates and officials of any political party are prohibited from changing political party two (2) years after the election and two (2) years before the next election.

Those who violate the foregoing provisions shall be: (1) removed from the office to which they have been elected; (2) barred from appointment to any government position for one electoral cycle; (3) prohibited from running for public office in the next election; (4) required to return any party funds they used for the campaign. The Federal Commission on Elections shall initiate the appropriate proceedings in the proper court.

(b) Candidates and officials of any political party are prohibited from changing political party two (2) years after the election and two (2) years before the next election.

Those who violate the foregoing provisions shall be: (1) removed from the office to which they have been elected; (2) barred from appointment to any government position for one electoral cycle; (3) prohibited from running for public office in the next election; (4) required to return any party funds they used for the campaign. The Federal Commission on Elections shall initiate the appropriate proceedings in the proper court.

(c) Any political party is prohibited from accepting any of the persons above referred to. Any violation thereof shall be a ground for the cancellation of its registration. No political party shall accept any member in violation of sub-section (a) and (b). Any violation thereof shall be a ground for the cancellation of its registration. (c) No political party shall accept any member in violation of sub-section (a) and (b). Any violation shall be a ground for the cancellation of its registration.

(d) Any change in the membership of any political party arising from a violation of the abovementioned provisions shall be reported to the Federal Commission on Elections.

The Federal Commission on Elections shall ensure compliance with these provisions and periodically require political parties to submit an updated list of their members.

(d) The Federal Commission on Elections shall ensure compliance with these provisions and periodically require political parties to submit an updated list of their members, including any changes arising from violation of the above provisions.
(e) No political party shall nominate more candidates than the number of persons required to be voted for in an elective position, except for the proportional representative seats in the House of Representatives, nor shall any candidate be allowed to accept nominations from more than one registered political party, except in cases of aggrupation or coalitions thereof. (e) No political party shall nominate more candidates than the number of persons required to be voted for in an elective position, except for the proportional representative seats in the House of Representatives and the Regional Assemblies, nor shall any candidate be allowed to accept nominations from more than one registered political party, except in cases of aggrupation or coalitions.
SECTION 8. The Federal Republic shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and prohibit political dynasties to prevent the concentration, consolidation, or perpetuation of political power in persons related to one another. SECTION 8. The Federal Republic shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and prohibit political dynasties to prevent the concentration, consolidation, or perpetuation of political power in persons related to one another.
(a) A political dynasty exists when a family whose members are related up to the second degree of consanguinity or affinity, whether such relations are legitimate, illegitimate, half, or full blood, maintains or is capable of maintaining political control by succession or by simultaneously running for or holding elective positions. (a) A political dynasty exists when a family whose members are related up to the second degree of consanguinity or affinity, whether such relations are legitimate, illegitimate, half, or full blood, maintains or is capable of maintaining political control by succession or by simultaneously running for or holding elective positions.
(b) No person related to an incumbent elective official within the second civil degree of consanguinity or affinity, as described above, can run for the same position in the immediately following election. (b) No person related to an incumbent elective official within the second civil degree of consanguinity or affinity, as described above, can run for the same position in the immediately following election.
(c) Persons related within the second civil degree of consanguinity or affinity, as described above, are prohibited from running simultaneously for more than one national and one regional or local position. However, in the event that two or more members of the same family are running, the member who shall be allowed to be a candidate shall be determined by the drawing of lots. (c) Persons related within the second civil degree of consanguinity or affinity, as described above, are prohibited from running simultaneously for more than one national and one regional or local position. However, in the event that two or more members of the same family are running, the member who shall be allowed to be a candidate shall be determined by the drawing of lots.
(d) The Federal Congress may, by law, provide for additional prohibitions. (d) The Federal Congress may, by law, provide for additional prohibitions.

New Article:
People’s Initiative, Plebiscite,
and Referendum

Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article VI

Article VI

SECTION 1. The Federal Republic recognizes and promotes the mechanism of People’s Initiative as the means of the sovereign people to directly propose revision of or amendment to the Constitution, or to propose, enact, amend or repeal laws, acts, ordinances, or resolutions passed by any legislative body. SECTION 1. The Federal Republic recognizes and promotes the mechanism of people’s initiative as the means of the sovereign people to directly propose amendment to, or revision of, the Constitution, or to propose, enact, amend, or repeal laws, acts, ordinances, or resolutions passed by any legislative body.
SECTION 2. People’s Initiative shall be commenced by filing with the Federal Commission on Elections a verified petition and the draft of the proposal which shall embrace only one subject expressed in the title thereof. The proponents may avail of the services of the Office of the Solicitor General or Integrated Bar of the Philippines in the drafting and processing of the proposal and the petition, free of any charge. SECTION 2. People’s initiative shall be commenced by filing with the Federal Commission on Elections a verified petition and the draft of the proposal which shall embrace only one subject expressed in the title thereof. The proponents may avail themselves of the services of the Office of the Solicitor General or Integrated Bar of the Philippines in the drafting and processing of the proposal and the petition, free of charge.
SECTION 3. A petition for people’s initiative shall comply with the following signature requirements: SECTION 3. A petition for people’s initiative shall comply with the following signature requirements:
(a) A proposal to revise the Constitution shall be accompanied by the signature of voters representing at least thirty percent (30%) of the votes cast in the last preceding national elections, of which every Federated Region must be represented by at least ten percent (10%) of the signatures of such voters; (a) A proposal to revise the Constitution shall be accompanied by the signature of voters representing at least thirty percent (30%) of the votes cast in the last preceding national elections, of which every Federated Region must be represented by at least ten percent (10%) of the signatures of such voters;
(b) A proposal to amend the Constitution shall be accompanied by the signature of voters representing at least twelve percent (12%) of the votes cast in the last preceding national elections, of which every federated region must be represented by at least three percent (3%) of the signatures of such voters; (b) A proposal to amend the Constitution shall be accompanied by the signature of voters representing at least twelve percent (12%) of the votes cast in the last preceding national elections, of which every Federated Region must be represented by at least three percent (3%) of the signatures of such voters;
(c) A proposal to enact, amend or reject a Federal Law must be accompanied by the signature of voters representing at least ten percent (10%) of the votes cast in the last preceding national elections, of which every federated region must be represented by at least three percent (3%) of the signatures of such voters. (c) A proposal to enact, amend, or repeal a Federal Law shall be accompanied by the signature of voters representing at least ten percent (10%) of the votes cast in the last preceding national elections, of which every Federated Region must be represented by at least three percent (3%) of the signatures of such voters.
(d) The Federal Commission on Elections shall simultaneously verify the signatures of the voters endorsing the initiative. (d) The Federal Commission on Elections shall simultaneously verify the signatures of the voters endorsing the initiative.
SECTION 4. Upon determination that the petition to enact, amend, repeal a federal law, or revise or amend the Constitution has complied with the requirements of the preceding sections, the Federal Commission on Elections shall set the date for the conduct of the plebiscite to be held not earlier than six months (6) therefrom. Upon determination that the petition to enact, amend or repeal a federal law has complied with the requirements of the preceding sections, the Federal Commission on Elections may refer the proposed initiative measure to the Federal Constitutional Court for determination whether the proposal suffers from constitutional infirmity. If the Federal Constitutional Court issues a determination that the proposal does not suffer from any constitutional infirmity, the Federal Commission On Elections shall certify the measure and submit it to a plebiscite or referendum in the next succeeding national election, provided, that the schedule is not earlier than six (6) months from such certification. If no national election is scheduled within one (1) year from the certification of the proposed measure, the Federal Commission on Elections may proceed to set the schedule of a referendum. SECTION 4.
(a) Upon determination that the petition to enact, amend, repeal a federal law, or revise or amend the Constitution has complied with the requirements of the preceding sections, the Federal Commission on Elections shall set the date for the conduct of the plebiscite to be held not earlier than six (6) months therefrom.
(b) The Federal Commission on Elections may, on its own, refer the proposed initiative measure to the Federal Constitutional Court for advisory opinion on its constitutionality.
(c) If the Federal Constitutional Court issues a determination that the proposal does not suffer from any constitutional infirmity, the Federal Commission on Elections shall certify the measure and submit it to a plebiscite or referendum in the next succeeding national election; Provided, that the schedule is not earlier than six (6) months from such certification. If no national election is scheduled within one (1) year from the certification of the proposed measure, the Federal Commission on Elections may set the date of the plebiscite or referendum.
SECTION 5. During the period for the conduct of plebiscite or referendum, the Federal Commission on Elections shall ensure the public dissemination of information on the proposed initiative measure, which shall include the following: SECTION 5. During the period for the conduct of plebiscite or referendum, the Federal Commission on Elections shall ensure the public dissemination of information on the proposed initiative measure, which shall include the following:
(a) Production and distribution, as far as practicable, to the registered voters of pamphlets containing the title of the proposed measure, its full text, and its summary; (a) Production and distribution, as far as practicable, to the registered voters of pamphlets containing the title of the proposed measure, its full text, and its summary;
(b) Publication of the proposed measure and its summary in three newspapers of national circulation, and any appropriate digital platform for at least three consecutive weeks prior to the plebiscite or referendum; (b) Publication of the proposed measure and its summary in three newspapers of national circulation, and any appropriate digital platform, for at least three consecutive weeks prior to the plebiscite or referendum.
(c) Adequate time for airing of broadcast materials on the proposed measure in major national television networks and radio stations, all within two months prior to the conduct of the plebiscite or referendum, subject to proper adjustment by the Federal Commission on Elections; (c) Adequate time for airing of broadcast materials on the proposed measure in major national television networks and radio stations, all within two months prior to the conduct of the plebiscite or referendum, subject to proper adjustment by the Federal Commission on Elections;
(d) Holding of non-partisan people’s assembly or public forum on the proposed measure at least once in every province and highly urbanized city. (d) Holding of non-partisan people’s assembly or public forum on the proposed measure at least once in every province and highly urbanized city.
SECTION 6. A people’s initiative proposal shall be deemed adopted if approved by a majority of the votes cast in the plebiscite or referendum and subject to the further requirement that majority of the Federated Regions also voted for its approval, as certified to by the Commission on Elections. It shall take effect fifteen (15) days from the issuance of such certification. SECTION 6. A proposal to enact, amend, or repeal a federal law shall be deemed adopted if approved by a majority of the votes cast in the plebiscite or referendum; Provided, that majority of the Federated Regions also voted for its approval, as certified to by the Commission on Elections. It shall take effect fifteen (15) days from the issuance of such certification.
SECTION 7. No revision of or amendment to the Constitution shall be allowed within five (5) years from its enactment, or more often than once every five (5) years thereafter. SECTION 7. Any amendment to, or revision of, the Constitution through people’s initiative shall be in accordance with Sections 4 and 5 of Article XXI of the Constitution.
SECTION 8. No amendment or repeal of a statute adopted through people’s initiative shall be allowed within one year from its effectivity and except upon a two-thirds (2/3) vote of all the members of the Senate and the House of Representatives voting separately. SECTION 8. No amendment or repeal of a statute adopted through people’s initiative shall be allowed within one year from its effectivity and except upon a two-thirds (2/3) vote of all the members of the Senate and the House of Representatives, voting separately.
SECTION 9. Within two (2) years from the adoption of this Constitution, every Regional egislative Assembly shall enact the laws for the exercise of People’s Initiative on matters within their respective jurisdiction, provided that no regional people’s initiative shall be allowed without the signature of at least ten percent (10%) of the votes cast in the region. SECTION 9. Within two (2) years from the adoption of the Constitution, every Regional Assembly shall enact the laws for the exercise of people’s initiative on matters within their respective jurisdiction; Provided, that no regional people’s initiative shall be allowed without the signature of voters representing at least ten percent (10%) of the votes cast in the preceding election in the region.
SECTION 10. The Congress shall appropriate an annual budget for people’s initiative, which shall be automatically released to the Federal Commission on Elections. SECTION 10. The Congress shall appropriate an annual budget for people’s initiative, which shall be automatically released to the Federal Commission on Elections.

The Legislative Department

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article VI

Article VII

Article VII

SECTION 1.
SECTION 1. The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum. (a) The Federal legislative power is vested in the Congress, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. SECTION 1. The Federal legislative power is vested in the Congress, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
(b) The people, pursuant to the provisions on initiative and referendum, may directly exercise legislative power. The people, pursuant to the provisions on initiative, plebiscite, and referendum, may directly exercise legislative power.
SECTION 2. The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of the Philippines, as may be provided by law. SECTION 2. Every Federated Region shall be represented by at least two (2) Senators elected by the qualified voters in the federated region, provided that each region shall have the same number of senators. SECTION 2. Every Federated Region shall be represented by at least two (2) Senators elected by the qualified voters in the Federated Region; Provided, that each region shall have the same number of senators.
SECTION 3. No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, and, on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election. SECTION 3. No person shall be elected Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, at least thirty-five (35) years of age, holder of a college degree or its equivalent, a registered voter, and domiciled in the Federated Region where he or she is to be elected for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election. SECTION 3. No person shall be elected Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, at least thirty-five (35) years of age, holder of a college degree or its equivalent, a registered voter, and domiciled in the Federated Region where he or she is to be elected for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.
SECTION 4.
SECTION 4. The term of office of the Senators shall be six years and shall commence, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. (a) The term of office of the Senators shall be four (4) years and shall commence, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June, next following their election. They shall continue in office until their successors shall have been elected, proclaimed, and qualified. SECTION 4. The term of office of the Senators shall be four (4) years and shall commence, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. They shall continue in office until their successors shall have been elected, proclaimed, and qualified.
No Senator shall serve for more than two consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected. (b) No Senator shall serve for more than two (2) consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected. No Senator shall serve for more than two (2) consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.
SECTION 5. SECTION 5. SECTION 5.
(1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred and fifty members, unless otherwise fixed by law, who shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants, and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio, and those who, as provided by law, shall be elected through a party-list system of registered national, regional, and sectoral parties or organizations. (a) The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than four hundred (400) members unless otherwise provided by law. (a) The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than four hundred (400) Members unless otherwise provided by law.
(b) Sixty per centum (60%) of the members of the House of Representatives shall be elected by plurality of votes where each single member legislative electoral district shall have one (1) seat in the House of Representatives. Single member legislative districts shall be apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio as may be provided by federal law. (b) Sixty per centum (60%) of the Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected by plurality of votes where each single-member legislative electoral district shall have one (1) seat in the House of Representatives. Single-member legislative districts shall be apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio as may be provided by federal law.
(c) The remaining forty percent (40%) of the Members of the House of Representative shall be voted by the system of proportional representation. Every voter shall elect a registered political party with a closed list of nominees, provided that these nominees are qualified to be members of the House of Representatives. Parties elected in the foregoing manner that obtain at least five percent (5%) of the valid, national votes shall be considered elected, and seats shall be allocated to the winning parties in proportion to the number of votes received by them. (c) The remaining forty percent (40%) of the Members of the House of Representatives shall be voted nationwide through a system of proportional representation. Every voter shall vote for a registered political party with a closed list of nominees; Provided, that these nominees are qualified to be members of the House of Representatives. Political parties that obtain at least five percent (5%) of the valid votes cast under the proportional party representation system shall be considered elected and shall be allocated seats in proportion to the number of votes they received.
(2) The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total number of representatives including those under the party list. For three consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution, one-half of the seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled, as provided by law, by selection or election from the labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural communities, women, youth, and such other sectors as may be provided by law, except the religious sector. (d) For three consecutive terms following the ratification of this Constitution, one half of the seats set apart for party’s voted under the proportional representation system shall be reserved for labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural communities and fisherfolk groups, provided that they organize themselves as parties or coalitions of parties. The other half of the total seats allocated for proportional representation shall be open to all other political parties or coalitions thereof. (d) For three (3) consecutive terms following the ratification of this Constitution, one half of the seats set aside for parties voted under the proportional representation system shall be reserved for labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous peoples, and fisherfolk groups, provided that they organize themselves as parties or coalitions of parties. The other half of the total seats allocated for proportional representation shall be open to all other political parties or coalitions thereof.
(3) Each legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, contiguous, compact and adjacent territory. Each city with a population of at least two hundred fifty thousand, or each province, shall have at least one representative. (e) Each single member legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, contiguous, compact, and adjacent territory. Each city, including those located in islands, with a population of at least five hundred thousand (500,000), or each province regardless of population shall be entitled to at least one (1) member of the House of Representatives. (e) Each single-member legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, a contiguous, compact, and adjacent territory. Each city, including those located on islands, with a population of at least five hundred thousand (500,000), or each province regardless of population shall be entitled to at least one (1) member of the House of Representatives.
(4) Within three years following the return of every census, the Congress shall make a reapportionment of legislative districts based on the standards provided in this section. (f) Within five (5) years following the return of every national census, the Congress is mandated to pass a reapportionment law or to make reapportionment of legislative districts based on the standards provided in this section. (f) Within five (5) years following the return of every national census, the Congress is mandated to pass a reapportionment law or to make reapportionment of legislative districts based on the standards provided in this section.
SECTION 6. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural- born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party-list representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election. SECTION 6. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five (25) years of age, and holder of a college degree or its equivalent. Except for one elected through the Proportional Representation system, he must be a registered voter in the district and domiciled in the district where he is to be elected for a period of not less than one (1) year immediately preceding the day of the election. SECTION 6. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, at least twenty-five (25) years of age on the day of the election, and holder of a college degree or its equivalent. Except for one elected through the proportional representation system, he must be a registered voter and domiciled in the district where he is to be elected for a period of not less than one (1) year immediately preceding the day of the election.
SECTION 7.
SECTION 7. The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of three years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. (a) The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of four (4) years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June, next following their election. SECTION 7. The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of four (4) years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election.
No member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected. (b) No member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than two (2) consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of the service for the full term for which he was elected. No member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than two (2) consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of the service for the full term for which he was elected.
SECTION 8. Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Senators and the Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May. SECTION 8. Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Senators and the Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May. SECTION 8. Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Senators and the Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May.
SECTION 9. SECTION 9.
SECTION 9. In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives, a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law, but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term. (a) In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives, a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law, but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term. In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives, a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law, but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term.
(b) In the case of representatives elected through the Proportional Representation system, the vacancy shall be filled based on the preferential order of names on the closed and fixed list submitted to the Federal Commission on Elections by the parties in the previous election. In the case of representatives elected through the proportional representation system, the vacancy shall be filled based on the preferential order of names on the closed list submitted to the Federal Commission on Elections by the parties in the preceding election.
SECTION 10. The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be determined by law. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives approving such increase. SECTION 10. The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be determined by law. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives approving such increase. SECTION 10. The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Represe ntatives shall be fixed by law. No increase in compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives approving such increase.
SECTION 11. A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall, in all offenses punishable by not more than six years imprisonment, be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof. SECTION 11. A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall, in all offenses punishable by not more than six (6) years imprisonment, be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof. SECTION 11. A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall, in all offenses punishable by not more than six (6) years imprisonment, be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof.
SECTION 12. All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests. They shall notify the House concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors. SECTION 12. All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests. They shall notify the House concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors. SECTION 12. All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests. They shall notify the House concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors.
SECTION 13. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected. SECTION 13. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected. SECTION 13. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected.
SECTION 14. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as counsel before any court of justice or before the Electoral Tribunals, or quasi-judicial and other administrative bodies. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be interested financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, or its subsidiary, during his term of office. He shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the Government for his pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office. SECTION 14. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as counsel before any court of justice or before any quasi-judicial and other administrative bodies, except when he is a party to the case. Neither shall he, during his term of office, directly or indirectly, be interested financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, or its subsidiary. He shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the Government for their pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office. SECTION 14. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as counsel before any court of justice or before any quasi-judicial and other administrative bodies, except when he is a party to the case. Neither shall he, during his term of office, directly or indirectly, be interested financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. He shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the government for their pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office.
SECTION 15. The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session, unless a different date is fixed by law, and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. The President may call a special session at any time. SECTION 15. The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session, unless a different date is fixed by law, and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. The President may call a special session at any time. SECTION 15. The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session, unless a different date is fixed by law, and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine until thirty (30) days before the opening of its next regular session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. The President may call a special session at any time.
SECTION 16. SECTION 16. SECTION 16.

(1) The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives its Speaker, by a majority vote of all its respective Members.

Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary.

(a) The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives, its Speaker, by a majority vote of all its respective Members. Each House may choose such other officers as it may deem necessary. (a) The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives, its Speaker, by a majority vote of all its respective Members. Each House may choose such other officers as it may deem necessary.
(2) A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent Members in such manner, and under such penalties, as such House may provide. (b) A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent Members in such manner, and under such penalties, as such House may provide. (b) A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent Members in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.
(3) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member. A penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not exceed sixty days. (c) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly behavior committed during his or her incumbency, and with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member. A penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not exceed sixty (60) days. Provided that each House shall comply with final and executory orders of judicial or quasi-judicial authorities imposing disciplinary sanctions on its Members. (c) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly behavior committed during their incumbency and, with the concurrence of two-thirds (2/3) of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member. A penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not exceed sixty (60) days. Provided that each House shall comply with final and executory orders of judicial or quasi-judicial authorities imposing disciplinary sanctions on its Members.

(4) Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in its judgment, affect national security; and the yeas and nays on any question shall, at the request of one-fifth of the Members present, be entered in the Journal.

Each House shall also keep a Record of its proceedings.

(d) Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in its judgment, affect national security; and the yeas and nays on any question shall, at the request of one-fifth of the Members present, be entered in the Journal. Each House shall also keep a Record of its proceedings. (d) Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in its judgment, affect national security; and the yeas and nays on any question shall, at the request of one-fifth (1/5) of the Members present, be entered in the Journal. Each House shall also keep a record of its proceedings.
(5) Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. (e) Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. (e) Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three (3) days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
SECTION 17. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members, three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of Representatives, as the case may be, who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman. SECTION 17. All contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be within the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Federal Electoral Court, as provided in Article IX of this Constitution. SECTION 17. All contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be within the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Federal Electoral Court, as provided in Article IX of the Constitution.
SECTION 18. SECTION 18.
SECTION 18. There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Senators and twelve Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The Chairman of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie. The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within thirty session days of the Congress from their submission. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members. (a) There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve (12) Senators and twelve (12) Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties represented therein. The Chairman of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie. The Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all the Members. (a) There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the Senate as ex officio Chairperson, twelve (12) Senators and twelve (12) Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties represented therein. The Chairperson of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie. The Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all the Members.
(b) The Commission on Appointments shall perform other functions and duties as may be provided by this Constitution. (b) The Commission on Appointments shall perform other functions and duties as may be provided by the Constitution.
(c) Any appointment or nomination that has been bypassed or unacted upon by the Commission on Appointments at least twice shall be deemed disapproved. (c) Any appointment or nomination that has been bypassed or unacted upon by the Commission on Appointments at least twice shall be deemed disapproved.
SECTION 19. The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty days after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it. SECTION 19. The Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty (30) days after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it. SECTION 19. The Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty (30) days after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call of its Chairperson or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such powers and functions conferred upon it.
SECTION 20. The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member. SECTION 20. The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member. SECTION 20. The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member.
SECTION 21.
SECTION 21. The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. The rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected. (a) The Senate or the House of Representatives, or any of its respective committees, may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. The rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected. SECTION 21. The Senate or the House of Representatives, or any of its respective committees, may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. The rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected.
(b) Any witness or resource person ordered detained for contempt during inquiry may seek judicial relief when the detention is patently unlawful or when its prolonged enforcement becomes unreasonable or violates due process. Any witness or resource person ordered detained for contempt during inquiry may seek judicial relief when the detention is patently unlawful or when its prolonged enforcement becomes unreasonable or violates due process.
SECTION 22. The heads of departments may upon their own initiative, with the consent of the President, or upon the request of either House, as the rules of each House shall provide, appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written questions shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled appearance. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions, but may cover matters related thereto. When the security of the State or the public interest so requires and the President so states in writing, the appearance shall be conducted in executive session. SECTION 22. The heads of departments may upon their own initiative, with the consent of the President, or upon the request of either House, as the rules of each House shall provide, appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written questions from the Members of Congress shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled appearance. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions, but may cover matters related thereto. When the security of the Federal Republic, or the public interest or nature of testimony or disclosure to be made so requires and the President so states in writing, the appearance shall be conducted in executive session. SECTION 22. The heads of departments may upon their own initiative, with the consent of the President, or upon the request of either House, as the rules of each House shall provide, appear before and be heard by either House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written questions from the Members of Congress shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three (3) days before their scheduled appearance. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions, but may cover matters related thereto. When the security of the Federal Republic, or the public interest or nature of testimony or disclosure to be made so requires and the President so states in writing, the appearance shall be conducted in executive session.
SECTION 23. SECTION 23. SECTION 23.
(1) The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled, voting separately, shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. (a) The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled, voting separately, shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. (a) The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds (2/3) of both Houses in joint session assembled, voting separately, shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war.
(2) In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress may, by law, authorize the President, for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof. (b) In the event Congress is unable to convene due to the existence of war or national emergency, the President, as Commander-in-Chief, shall exercise all powers necessary to cope with the situation. When Congress is able to reconvene, it may revoke such exercise of powers of the President through a resolution. (b) In the event the Congress is unable to convene due to the existence of war or national emergency, the President, as Commander-in-Chief, shall exercise all powers necessary to resolve the situation. When the Congress is able to convene, it may, through a resolution, revoke such exercise of powers by the President.
(c) In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress may, by law, authorize the President, for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as Congress may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof. (c) In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress may, by law, authorize the President, for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as the Congress may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof.
SECTION 24. All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing increase of the public debt, bills of local application, and private bills shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments. SECTION 24. All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing increase of the public debt and private bills shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments. SECTION 24. All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing increase of the public debt and private bills shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may concur with or propose amendments to such bills.
SECTION 25. SECTION 25. SECTION 25.
(1) The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of the Government as specified in the budget. The form, content, and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law. (a) The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of the Federal Government as specified in the budget. The form, content, and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law. (a) The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of the Federal Government as specified in the budget. The form, content, and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law.
(2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appropriation to which it relates. (b) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appropriation to which it relates. (b) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appropriation to which it relates.
(3) The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for other departments and agencies. (c) The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for other departments and agencies. (c) The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for other departments and agencies.
(4) A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended, and shall be supported by funds actually available as certified by the National Treasurer, or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposed therein. (d) A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended, and shall be supported by funds actually available as certified by the National Treasurer, or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposal therein. (d) A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended, and shall be supported by funds actually available as certified by the National Treasurer, or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposal therein.
(5) No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations; however, the President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the heads of Constitutional Commissions may, by law, be authorized to augment any item in the general appropriations law for their respective offices from savings in other items of their respective appropriations. (e) No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations; however, the President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Chief Justice of the Federal Supreme Court, the Chief Justices of the Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court and the Federal Electoral Court, and the heads of Constitutional Commissions may, by law, be authorized to augment any item in the General Appropriations Act for their respective offices from savings in other items of their respective appropriations. (e) No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations; however, the President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Chief Justices of the Federal Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court and the Federal Electoral Court, and the heads of Constitutional Commissions may, by law, be authorized to augment any item in the General Appropriations Act for their respective offices from savings in other items of their respective appropriations.
(6) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. (f) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. (f) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law.
(7) If, by the end of any fiscal year, the Congress shall have failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal year, the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed reenacted and shall remain in force and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress. (g) If, by the end of any fiscal year, the Congress shall have failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal year, the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed re-enacted and shall remain in force and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress. (g) If, by the end of any fiscal year, the Congress shall have failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal year, the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed re-enacted and shall remain in force and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress.
SECTION 26. SECTION 26. SECTION 26.
(1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof. (a) Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof. (a) Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one (1) subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof.
(2) No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three readings on separate days, and printed copies thereof in its final form have been distributed to its Members three days before its passage, except when the President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment to meet a public calamity or emergency. Upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereto shall be allowed, and the vote thereon shall be taken immediately thereafter, and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal. (b) No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three readings on separate days, and printed copies thereof in its final form have been distributed to its Members three days before its passage, except when the President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment to meet a public calamity or emergency. Upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereto shall be allowed, and the vote thereon shall be taken immediately thereafter, and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal. (b) No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three (3) readings on separate days, and printed copies thereof in its final form have been distributed to its Members three days before its passage, except when the President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment to meet a public calamity or emergency. Upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereto shall be allowed, and the vote thereon shall be taken immediately thereafter, and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal.
(c) There shall be a Bicameral Conference Committee composed of members chosen by each House that shall reconcile conflicting provisions of the bill passed by both Houses. The reconciled version shall be subject to vote by each House in accordance with their respective rules. (c) There shall be a Bicameral Conference Committee composed of Members chosen by each House that shall reconcile conflicting provisions of the bill passed by each House. The reconciled version shall be subject to vote by each House in accordance with their respective rules.
SECTION 27. SECTION 27. SECTION 27.
(1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President. If he approves the same, he shall sign it; otherwise, he shall veto it and return the same with his objections to the House where it originated, which shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of that House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, the votes of each House shall be determined by yeas or nays, and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. The President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty days after the date of receipt thereof; otherwise, it shall become a law as if he had signed it. (a) Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President. If he approves the same he shall sign it; otherwise, he shall veto it and return the same with his objections to the House where it originated, which shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of that House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, the votes of each House shall be determined by yeas or nays, and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. The President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty days after the date of receipt thereof, otherwise, it shall become a law as if he had signed it. Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President. If he approves the same he shall sign it; otherwise, he shall veto it and return the same with his objections to the House where it originated, which shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds (2/3) of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds (2/3) of all the Members of that House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, the votes of each House shall be determined by yeas or nays, and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. The President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty (30) days after the date of receipt thereof, otherwise, it shall become a law as if he had signed it; Provided that when an advisory opinion of the Constitutional Court is sought, as provided for in subparagraph (a), Section 12 of Article IX, the President shall only act on the bill within thirty (30) days from the issuance of the opinion.
(2) The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object. (b) The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object. The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object.
SECTION 28. SECTION 28. SECTION 28.
(1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable. The Congress shall evolve a progressive system of taxation. (a) Taxation shall be uniform, equitable, and progressive. (a) Taxation shall be uniform, equitable, and progressive.
(2) The Congress may, by law, authorize the President to fix within specified limits, and subject to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within the framework of the national development program of the Government. (b) The Congress may, by law, authorize the President to fix within specified limits, and subject to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within the framework of the national development program of the Government. (b) The Congress may, by law, authorize the President to fix within specified limits, and subject to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within the framework of the national development program of the government.
(3) Charitable institutions, churches and parsonages or convents appurtenant thereto, mosques, non-profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and improvements, actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. (c) Charitable institutions, churches, temples, masajid and parsonages or convents, madaris, non-profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and improvements, actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. (c) Charitable institutions, churches, temples, masajid and parsonages or convents, madaris, non-profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and improvements, actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation.
(4) No law granting any tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress. (d) No law granting any Federal tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of a two-thirds of all the Members of each House of Congress, voting separately. (d) No law granting any Federal tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of at least two-thirds (2/3) of all the Members of each House of Congress, voting separately.
SECTION 29. SECTION 29. SECTION 29.
(1) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law. (a) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law. (a) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law.
(2) No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion, or of any priest, preacher, minister, or other religious teacher, or dignitary as such, except when such priest, preacher, minister, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, or to any penal institution, or government orphanage or leprosarium. (b) No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion, or of any priest, preacher, minister, or other religious teacher, or dignitary as such, except when such priest, preacher, minister, imam, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, law enforcement agencies or to any penal institution, or government orphanage or hospitals. (b) No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion, or of any priest, preacher, minister, or other religious teacher, or dignitary except when such priest, preacher, minister, imam, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, law enforcement agencies or to any penal institution, or government orphanage or hospital.
(3) All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be treated as a special fund and paid out for such purpose only. If the purpose for which a special fund was created has been fulfilled or abandoned, the balance, if any, shall be transferred to the general funds of the Government. (c) All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be treated as a special fund and paid out for such purpose only. If the purpose for which a special fund was created has been fulfilled or abandoned, the balance, if any, shall be transferred to the general funds of the Government. (c) All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be treated as a special fund and paid out for such purpose only. If the purpose for which a special fund was created has been fulfilled or abandoned, the balance, if any, shall be transferred to the general funds of the government.
SECTION 30. No law shall be passed increasing the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as provided in this Constitution without its advice and concurrence.
SECTION 31. No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted.
SECTION 32. The Congress shall, as early as possible, provide for a system of initiative and referendum, and the exceptions therefrom, whereby the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition therefor signed by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters thereof.

Executive Department

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article VII

Article VIII

Article VIII

SECTION 1. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Philippines. SECTION 1. The executive power of the Federal Republic is vested in the President. SECTION 1. The executive power of the Federal Republic is vested in the President.
SECTION 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election. SECTION 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, holder of a college degree or its equivalent and on the day of the election, at least forty (40) years of age, and domiciled in the Philippines for at least ten (10) years immediately preceding such election. SECTION 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, holder of a college degree or its equivalent and on the day of the election, at least forty (40) years of age, and domiciled in the Philippines for at least ten (10) years immediately preceding such election.
SECTION 3.
SECTION 3. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office and be elected with and in the same manner as the President. He may be removed from office in the same manner as the President. (a) There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office as the President. SECTION 3. There shall be a Vice President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office as the President.
The Vice-President may be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. Such appointment requires no confirmation. (b) The Vice-President shall be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. The appointment shall not require confirmation. The Vice President shall be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. The appointment shall not require confirmation.
SECTION 4. SECTION 4.
SECTION 4. The President and the Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a term of six years which shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon of the same date six years thereafter. The President shall not be eligible for any reelection. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time. (a) The President and the Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a term of four (4) years, which shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon on the same date four (4) years thereafter. Both the President and Vice President shall be eligible for reelection to one (1) term. (a) The President and the Vice President shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a term of four (4) years, which shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon on the same date four (4) years thereafter. Both the President and Vice President shall be eligible for reelection to one (1) term.
(b) A person who has succeeded to the office of the President and has served as such for at least two (2) years and has been elected as President for a fresh term shall be ineligible for election to the same office at any other time. (b) A person who has succeeded to the office of the President and has served as such for at least two (2) years and has been elected as President for a fresh term shall be ineligible for election to the same office at any other time.
(c) The President and the Vice-President shall be elected as a team. A vote for the presidential candidate shall be counted as a vote for his or her vice presidential candidate. (c) The President and the Vice President shall be elected as a team. A vote for the presidential candidate shall be counted as a vote for his vice presidential candidate.
No Vice-President shall serve for more than two consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of the service for the full term for which he was elected.
Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election for President and Vice-President shall be held on the second Monday of May.
The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the election, open all certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the votes. (d) The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each Federated Region, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall, not later than thirty (30) days after the day of the election, open all certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the votes. (d) The returns of every election for President and Vice President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each Federated Region, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall, not later than thirty (30) days after the day of the election, open all certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the votes.
The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately. (e) The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately. (e) The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting jointly.
The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates. The Supreme Court, sitting en banc, shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of the President or Vice- President, and may promulgate its rules for the purpose. (f) The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates of votes. (f) The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates of votes.
(g) The Federal Electoral Court, shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of the President and Vice-President, as provided for in Section 18, Article IX of this Constitution. (g) The Federal Electoral Court, shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of the President and Vice President, as provided for in Section 18, Article IX of the Constitution.
SECTION 5. Before they enter on the execution of their office, the President, the Vice-President, or the Acting President shall take the following oath or affirmation: SECTION 5. Before they enter on the execution of their office, the President, the Vice- President, or the Acting President shall take the following oath or affirmation: SECTION 5. Before they enter on the execution of their office, the President, the Vice President, or the Acting President shall take the following oath or affirmation:
“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President (or Vice-President or Acting President) of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.” (In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted.) “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President (or Vice-President or Acting President) of the Federal Republic of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.” (In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted.) “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President (or Vice President or Acting President) of the Federal Republic of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.” (In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted.)
SECTION 6. The President shall have an official residence. The salaries of the President and Vice- President shall be determined by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the term of the incumbent during which such increase was approved. They shall not receive during their tenure any other emolument from the Government or any other source. SECTION 6. The President shall have an official residence. The salaries of the President and Vice-President shall be determined by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the term of the incumbent during which such increase was approved. They shall not receive during their tenure any other emolument from the Government or any other source. SECTION 6. The President shall have an official residence. The salaries of the President and Vice President shall be fixed by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. No increase in compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the term of the incumbent during which such increase was approved. They shall not receive during their tenure any other emolument from the government or any other source.
SECTION 7.
SECTION 7. The President-elect and the Vice-President-elect shall assume office at the beginning of their terms. (a) The election for President and Vice President shall, unless otherwise provided by law, be held every second Monday of May and every four years thereafter. Their term of office commences at noon of the 30th of June following their election. SECTION 7. (a) The election for President and Vice President shall, unless otherwise provided by law, be held every second Monday of May and every four (4) years thereafter.
If the President-elect fails to qualify, the Vice-President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified. (b) If the President-elect fails to qualify, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified. (b) If the President-elect fails to qualify, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified.
If a President shall not have been chosen, the Vice-President-elect shall act as President until a President shall have been chosen and qualified.
If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice-President-elect shall become President. (c) If at the beginning of their term, the President shall have died or shall have become permanently incapacitated, the Vice-President shall become President. (c) If at the beginning of their term, the President shall have died or shall have become permanently incapacitated, the Vice President shall become President.
Where no President and Vice-President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall act as President until a President or a Vice-President shall have been chosen and qualified. (d) Where no President and Vice-President shall have been elected or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently incapacitated, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall act as President until a President or a Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified. (d) Where no President and Vice President shall have been elected or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently incapacitated, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall act as President until a President or a Vice President shall have been elected and qualified.
The Congress shall, by law, provide for the manner in which one who is to act as President shall be selected until a President or a Vice-President shall have qualified, in case of death, permanent disability, or inability of the officials mentioned in the next preceding paragraph. (e) The Congress shall, by law, provide for the manner in which one who is to act as President shall be selected until a President or a Vice-President shall have qualified, in case of death, permanent incapacity, or inability of the officials mentioned in the next preceding paragraph. (e) The Congress shall, by law, provide for the manner in which one who is to act as President shall be selected until a President or a Vice President shall have qualified, in case of death, permanent incapacity, or inability of the officials mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
SECTION 8. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice-President shall become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice- President, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified. SECTION 8. In case of death, permanent incapacity, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice-President shall become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent incapacity, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice-President, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified. SECTION 8. (a) In case of death, permanent incapacity, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice President shall become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent incapacity, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice President, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as President until the President or Vice President shall have been elected and qualified.
The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice- President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President. The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent incapacity, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President. (b) The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent incapacity, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President.
SECTION 9. Whenever there is a vacancy in the Office of the Vice-President during the term for which he was elected, the President shall nominate a Vice-President from among the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives who shall assume office upon confirmation by a majority vote of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately. SECTION 9. In case of vacancy in the Office of the Vice President, the President shall appoint a Vice President from among the Members of the Senate or House of Representatives who belong to the same political party or coalition of political parties as that of the President. Such appointment shall need no confirmation by Congress. SECTION 9. In case of vacancy in the Office of the Vice President, the President shall appoint a Vice President from among the Members of the Senate or House of Representatives who belong to the same political party or coalition of political parties as that of the President. The appointment shall need no confirmation by the Congress.
SECTION 10. The Congress shall, at ten o’clock in the morning of the third day after the vacancy in the offices of the President and Vice-President occurs, convene in accordance with its rules without need of a call and within seven days enact a law calling for a special election to elect a President and a Vice-President to be held not earlier than forty-five days nor later than sixty days from the time of such call. The bill calling such special election shall be deemed certified under paragraph 2, Section 26, Article VI of this Constitution and shall become law upon its approval on third reading by the Congress. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph 4, Section 25, Article VI of this Constitution. The convening of the Congress cannot be suspended nor the special election postponed. No special election shall be called if the vacancy occurs within eighteen months before the date of the next presidential election. SECTION 10. The Congress shall, at ten o’clock in the morning of the third day after the vacancy in the offices of the President and Vice-President occurs, convene in joint session in accordance with its rules without need of a call and within seven (7) days enact a law calling for a special election to elect a President and a Vice-President to be held not earlier than forty-five (45) days nor later than sixty (60) days from the time of such call. The bill calling such special election shall be deemed certified under paragraph (b) Section 26, Article VII of this Constitution and shall become law upon its approval on third reading by the Congress voting jointly. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of subparagraph (d) Section 25 of Article VII of this Constitution. The convening of the Congress cannot be suspended nor the special election postponed. No special election shall be called if the vacancy occurs within eighteen (18) months before the date of the next presidential election. SECTION 10. The Congress shall, at ten o’clock in the morning of the third day after the vacancy in the offices of the President and Vice President occurs, convene in joint session in accordance with its rules without need of a call and within seven (7) days enact a law calling for a special election to elect a President and a Vice President to be held not earlier than forty-five (45) days nor later than sixty (60) days from the time of such call. The bill calling such special election shall be deemed certified under paragraph (b) Section 26, Article VII of the Constitution and shall become law upon its approval on third reading by the Congress voting jointly. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of subparagraph (d) Section 25 of Article VII of the Constitution. The convening of the Congress cannot be suspended nor the special election postponed. No special election shall be called if the vacancy occurs within eighteen (18) months before the date of the next presidential election.
SECTION 11. SECTION 11.
SECTION 11. Whenever the President transmits to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice-President as Acting President. (a) Whenever the President transmits to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice-President as Acting President. (a) Whenever the President transmits to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
Whenever a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. (b) Whenever a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. (b) Whenever a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall reassume the powers and duties of his office. Meanwhile, should a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit within five days to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Congress shall decide the issue. For that purpose, the Congress shall convene, if it is not in session, within forty-eight hours, in accordance with its rules and without need of call. (c) Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall reassume the powers and duties of his office. Meanwhile, should a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit within five days to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Congress shall decide the issue. For that purpose, the Congress shall convene, if it is not in session, within forty-eight hours, in accordance with its rules and without need of call. (c) Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall reassume the powers and duties of his office. Meanwhile, should a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit within five (5) days to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Congress shall decide the issue. For that purpose, the Congress shall convene, if it is not in session, within forty-eight (48) hours, in accordance with its rules and without need of call.
If the Congress, within ten days after receipt of the last written declaration, or, if not in session, within twelve days after it is required to assemble, determines by a two-thirds vote of both Houses, voting separately, that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall act as the President; otherwise, the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties of his office. (d) If the Congress, within ten days after receipt of the last written declaration, or, if not in session, within twelve days after it is required to assemble, determines by a two- thirds vote of both Houses, voting separately, that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall act as the President; otherwise, the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties of his office. (d) If the Congress, within ten (10) days after receipt of the last written declaration or, if not in session, within twelve (12) days after it is required to assemble, determines by a two-thirds (2/3) vote of both Houses, voting separately, that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall act as the President; otherwise, the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties of his office.
SECTION 12. In case of serious illness of the President, the public shall be informed of the state of his health. The Members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign relations and the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, shall not be denied access to the President during such illness. SECTION 12. In case of serious illness of the President, the public shall be informed of the state of his health. The Members of the Cabinet in charge of national security, foreign relations, and health, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and the personal physician of the President shall not be denied access to the President during such illness. SECTION 12. In case of serious illness of the President, the public shall be informed of the state of his health. The Members of the Cabinet in charge of national security, foreign relations, and health, the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and the personal physician of the President shall not be denied access to the President during such illness.
SECTION 13. SECTION 13.
SECTION 13. The President, Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their deputies or assistants shall not, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, hold any other office or employment during their tenure. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly, practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office. (a) The President, Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their Undersecretaries or Assistant Secretaries shall not, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, hold any other office or employment during their tenure. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly, practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office. The President, Vice President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their Undersecretaries or Assistant Secretaries shall not, unless otherwise provided in the Constitution, hold any other office or employment during their tenure. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly, practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office.
The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not during his tenure be appointed as members of the Constitutional Commissions, or the Office of the Ombudsman, or as Secretaries, Undersecretaries, chairmen or heads of bureaus or offices, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. (b) The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity, legitimate or illegitimate, within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not, during his tenure, be appointed as members of the Constitutional Commissions, the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court, or as Secretaries, Undersecretaries, Chairpersons or Heads of bureaus or offices, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity, legitimate or illegitimate, within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not, during his tenure, be appointed as members of the Constitutional Commissions, the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court, or as Secretaries, Undersecretaries, Chairpersons or Heads of bureaus or offices, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries.
SECTION 14. Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective, unless revoked by the elected President within ninety days from his assumption or reassumption of office. SECTION 14. Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective, unless revoked by the elected President within ninety days from his assumption or reassumption of office. SECTION 14. Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective, unless revoked by the elected President within ninety (90) days from his assumption or reassumption of office.
SECTION 15. Two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his term, a President or Acting President shall not make appointments, except temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public service or endanger public safety. SECTION 15. Three (3) months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his term, a President or Acting President shall not make appointments in any branch of government, except temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public service or endanger public safety. SECTION 15. Three (3) months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his term, the President or Acting President shall not make appointments, except temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public service or endanger public safety.
SECTION 16. SECTION 16.
SECTION 16. The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards. (a) The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the Armed Forces from the rank of Major General or Rear Admiral, and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Federal Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards. The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the Armed Forces from the rank of Major General or Rear Admiral, and other officers whose appointments are vested in him by the Constitution. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Federal Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards.
The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress, whether voluntary or compulsory, but such appointments shall be effective only until after disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress. (b) The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress, whether voluntary or compulsory, but such appointments shall be effective only until after disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress. The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress, whether voluntary or compulsory, but such appointments shall be effective only until after disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress.
SECTION 17. The President shall have control of all the executive departments, bureaus, and offices. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed. SECTION 17. The President shall have control of all the executive departments, bureaus, and offices under the Federal Government. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed. SECTION 17. The President shall have control of all the executive departments, bureaus, and offices under the Federal Government. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed.
SECTION 18. SECTION 18.
SECTION 18. The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and whenever it becomes necessary, he may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. (a) The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and whenever it becomes necessary, he may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. (a) The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and whenever it becomes necessary, he may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion, or rebellion.
In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law. Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, the President shall submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress. The Congress, voting jointly, by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session, may revoke such proclamation or suspension, which revocation shall not be set aside by the President. Upon the initiative of the President, the Congress may, in the same manner, extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be determined by the Congress, if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it. (b) In case of invasion, rebellion, or lawless violence, when the public safety requires it, he may, for a period not exceeding sixty (60) days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law. Within forty-eight (48) hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, the President shall submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress. The Congress, voting jointly, by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session, may revoke such proclamation or suspension, which revocation shall not be set aside by the President. Upon the initiative of the President, the Congress may, in the same manner, extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be determined by the Congress, if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it. (b) In case of invasion, rebellion, or lawless violence, when the public safety requires it, he may, for a period not exceeding sixty (60) days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law. Within forty-eight (48) hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, the President shall submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress. The Congress, voting jointly, by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session, may revoke such proclamation or suspension, which revocation shall not be set aside by the President. Upon the initiative of the President, the Congress may, in the same manner, extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be determined by the Congress, if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it.
The Congress, if not in session, shall, within twenty-four hours following such proclamation or suspension, convene in accordance with its rules without any need of a call. (c) The Congress, if not in session, shall, within twenty-four (24) hours following such proclamation or suspension, convene in accordance with its rules without any need of a call. (c) The Congress, if not in session, shall, within twenty-four (24) hours following such proclamation or suspension, convene in accordance with its rules without any need of a call.
The Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen, the sufficiency of the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ or the extension thereof, and must promulgate its decision thereon within thirty days from its filing. (d) The Federal Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen, the sufficiency of the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ or the extension thereof, and must promulgate its decision thereon within thirty days from its filing. (d) The Federal Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen, the sufficiency of the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ or the extension thereof, and must promulgate its decision thereon within thirty (30) days from its filing.
A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ. (e) A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ. (e) A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ.
The suspension of the privilege of the writ shall apply only to persons judicially charged for rebellion or offenses inherent in or directly connected with the invasion. (f) The suspension of the privilege of the writ shall apply only to persons judicially charged for rebellion, or offenses inherent in or directly connected with invasion or lawless violence. (f) The suspension of the privilege of the writ shall apply only to persons judicially charged for rebellion or offenses inherent in or directly connected with invasion or lawless violence.
During the suspension of the privilege of the writ, any person thus arrested or detained shall be judicially charged within three days, otherwise he shall be released. (g) During the suspension of the privilege of the writ, any person arrested or detained shall be judicially charged within three (3) days, otherwise, he shall be released. (g) During the suspension of the privilege of the writ, any person arrested or detained shall be judicially charged within three (3) days, otherwise, he shall be released.
SECTION 19. Except in cases of impeachment, or as otherwise provided in this Constitution, the President may grant reprieves, commutations and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment. He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress. SECTION 19. Except in cases of impeachment, or as otherwise provided in this Constitution, the President may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment of offenses defined by federal law or other penal legislation. He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of the members of Congress, voting jointly. SECTION 19. Except in cases of impeachment, or as otherwise provided in the Constitution, the President may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment of offenses defined by federal law or other penal legislation. He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of the Members of the Congress, voting jointly.
SECTION 20. SECTION 20.
SECTION 20. The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. (a) The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. (a) The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
The Monetary Board shall, within thirty days from the end of every quarter of the calendar year, submit to the Congress a complete report of its decisions on applications for loans to be contracted or guaranteed by the Government or government-owned and controlled corporations which would have the effect of increasing the foreign debt, and containing other matters as may be provided by law. (b) The Monetary Board shall, within thirty (30) days from the end of every quarter of the calendar year, submit to the Congress a complete report of its decisions on applications for loans to be contracted or guaranteed by the Government or government-owned and controlled corporations which would have the effect of increasing the foreign debt, and containing other matters as may be provided by law. (b) The Monetary Board shall, within thirty (30) days from the end of every quarter of the calendar year, submit to the Congress a complete report of its decisions on applications for loans to be contracted or guaranteed by the government or government-owned and controlled corporations which would have the effect of increasing the foreign debt, and containing other matters as may be provided by law.
(c) When requested by Congress, the President and the Monetary Board shall submit to the Senate or the House of Representatives, or any of its committees, all documents and papers relative to such foreign loans. (c) When requested by Congress, the President and the Monetary Board shall submit to the Senate or the House of Representatives, or any of their committees, all documents and papers relative to such foreign loans.
SECTION 21. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. SECTION 21. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. SECTION 21. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate.
SECTION 22. The President shall submit to the Congress within thirty days from the opening of every regular session, as the basis of the general appropriations bill, a budget of expenditures and sources of financing, including receipts from existing and proposed revenue measures. SECTION 22. The President shall submit to the Congress within thirty days from the opening of every regular session, as the basis of the general appropriations bill, a budget of expenditures and sources of financing, including receipts from existing and proposed revenue measures. SECTION 22. The President shall submit to the Congress within thirty (30) days from the opening of every regular session, as the basis of the general appropriations bill, a budget of expenditures and sources of financing, including receipts from existing and proposed revenue measures.
SECTION 23. The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regular session. He may also appear before it at any other time. SECTION 23. The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regular session. He may also appear before it at any other time. SECTION 23. The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regular session. He may also appear before it at any other time.

Judicial Department

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article VIII

Article IX

Article IX

SECTION 1. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law. SECTION 1. The judicial power shall be vested in the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court and in other courts as may be established by law. SECTION 1. The judicial power shall be vested in the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court, and in other courts as may be established by law.
Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government. Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government; provided that the Federal Constitutional Court may render advisory opinions on constitutional questions properly referred to it and provided further that the Federal Administrative Court may render advisory opinion on whether the Federal Commission on Elections has complied with the processes, procedures, and preparations relative to the conduct of the elections as provided under subparagraph b, section 15 of this Article. Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government; Provided, that the Federal Constitutional Court may render advisory opinions on constitutional questions properly referred to it in accordance with Section 12 of this Article; Provided further, that the Federal Administrative Court may render advisory opinion on whether the Federal Commission on Elections has complied with the processes, procedures, and preparations relative to the conduct of the elections in accordance with subparagraph (b), Section 15 of this Article.
SECTION 2. SECTION 2.
SECTION 2. The Congress shall have the power to define, prescribe, and apportion the jurisdiction of various courts but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 hereof. (a) The Congress shall have the power to define, prescribe, and apportion the jurisdiction of the various courts but may not deprive the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court of their respective jurisdictions over cases or matters conferred on them in the Constitution. The Congress shall have the power to define, prescribe, and apportion the jurisdiction of the various courts but may not deprive the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court of their respective jurisdiction over cases or matters conferred on them in the Constitution.
No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its Members. (b) No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its Members. No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its Members.
SECTION 3. SECTION 3.
SECTION 3. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and, after approval, shall be automatically and regularly released. (a) The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy and through the Chief Justices of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court, shall have the power to augment any item in the general appropriations law for the offices of the Federal Supreme Court, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Administrative Court, and Federal Electoral Court respectively from savings in other items of their respective appropriations. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy and, through the Chief Justices of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court, shall have the power to augment any item in the general appropriations law for their respective offices from savings in other items of their appropriations, except the grant of additional bonuses and incentives to their officials and personnel.
(b) Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year. After approval, the appropriation shall be automatically and regularly released. Appropriations for the Judiciary shall not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year. After approval, the appropriation shall be automatically and regularly released.
SECTION 4. SECTION 4. SECTION 4.
(a) Subject to additional qualifications prescribed by the Constitution, all members of the Judiciary must be persons of proven competence, integrity, probity, and independence. Subject to additional qualifications prescribed by the Constitution, all members of the Judiciary must be persons of proven competence, integrity, probity, and independence.
(b) The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts, but no person may be appointed judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar, provided that members of a lower collegiate court must be natural-born citizens. The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts, but no person may be appointed judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar.
SECTION 5. SECTION 5.
(a) The Members of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court and the Federal Electoral Court shall serve for a term of twelve (12) years or until they reach the age of seventy (70) years, whichever comes first, or becomes incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. All other justices of the collegiate courts and judges of lowers courts shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy (70) years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. (a) The Members of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court and the Federal Electoral Court shall serve for a term of twelve (12) years or until they reach the age of seventy (70) years, whichever comes first, or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. All other justices of the collegiate courts and judges of lowers courts shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy (70) years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office.
(b) No law increasing or decreasing the jurisdiction of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court shall be enacted without its advice and consent. (b) No law increasing or decreasing the jurisdiction of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court shall be enacted without their advice and consent.
(c) Decisions, orders, and resolutions of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court en banc, and the Federal Electoral Court en banc, shall be final and executory, and shall not be subject to review. (c) Decisions, orders, and resolutions of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court, shall be final and executory.
(d) The salary of the Chief Justices and Associate Justices of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court, and the salary of the judges of lower courts shall be fixed by law. During their continuance in office, their salary shall not be decreased. Neither shall their retirement and other benefits be reduced. (d) The salary of the Chief Justices and Associate Justices of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court, and the salary of the judges of lower courts shall be fixed by law. During their continuance in office, their salary shall not be decreased. Neither shall their retirement and other benefits be reduced.
(e) The Members of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court, and the other courts established by law shall not be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative function. (e) The Members of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court, and the other courts established by law shall not be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative function.
(1) The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. It may sit en banc or in its discretion, in divisions of three, five, or seven Members. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety days from the occurrence thereof. SECTION 6. The Federal Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and eight (8) Associate Justices of whom: three (3) including the Chief Justice, shall be appointed by the President, three (3) shall be appointed by the Commission on Appointments, and three (3) shall be appointed by the Federal Constitutional Court en banc. Each appointing authority may adopt its own selection process. All such appointments shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority. SECTION 6. The Federal Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and eight (8) Associate Justices of whom three (3) including the Chief Justice, shall be appointed by the President, three (3) Associate Justices by the Commission on Appointments, and three (3) by the Federal Constitutional Court en banc. Each appointing authority may adopt its own selection process. All such appointments shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority; Provided, that no appointment shall be made three (3) months before a Presidential election up to the end of the term of the incumbent President.
SECTION 7. SECTION 7.
(a) No person shall be appointed member of the Federal Supreme Court, unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, at least fifty (50) years of age on the date of his appointment, and must have been for fifteen (15) years or more, a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. No person shall be appointed member of the Federal Supreme Court, unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, at least fifty (50) years of age on the date of his appointment, and must have been for fifteen (15) years or more, a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.
(2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty, international or executive agreement, or law, which shall be heard by the Supreme Court en banc, and all other cases which under the Rules of Court are required to be heard en banc, including those involving the constitutionality, application, or operation of presidential decrees, proclamations, orders, instructions, ordinances, and other regulations, shall be decided with the concurrence of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon.
(3) Cases or matters heard by a division shall be decided or resolved with the concurrence of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon, and in no case, without the concurrence of at least three of such Members. When the required number is not obtained, the case shall be decided en banc: Provided, that no doctrine or principle of law laid down by the court in a decision rendered en banc or in division may be modified or reversed except by the court sitting en banc. (b) All cases and administrative matters before the court shall be decided en banc with the concurrence of at least five (5) of its members. All cases and administrative matters before the Court shall be decided en banc with the concurrence of at least five (5) of its members.
SECTION 5. The Supreme Court shall have the following powers: SECTION 8. The Federal Supreme Court shall have the following powers: SECTION 8. The Federal Supreme Court shall have the following powers:
(1) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and over petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto, and habeas corpus. (a) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases: (a) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases:
1. Involving conflicts between branches and agencies within the Federal Government, conflicts between the Federal Government and the Federated Regions, and conflicts between and among the Federated Regions; 1) Involving conflicts between branches and agencies within the Federal Government, conflicts between the Federal Government and the Federated Regions, and conflicts between and among the Federated Regions; 2) Involving ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; and 3) Involving petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto.
2. Involving ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;
3. Involving petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto.
(2) Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari, as the law or the Rules of Court may provide, final judgments and orders of lower courts in: (b) Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari, as the law or the Rules of Court may provide, cases involving: (b) Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari, as the law or the Rules of Court may provide, cases involving:
(a) All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty, international or executive agreement, law, presidential decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance, or regulation is in question. 1. Final judgments and orders of lower courts except those within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Administrative Court, or of the Federal Electoral Court; 1) Final judgments and orders of lower courts except those within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Administrative Court, or of the Federal Electoral Court;
(b) All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation thereto. 3. The legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation thereto; 3) The legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation there to;
(c) All cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in issue. 2. The jurisdiction of any lower court; 2) The jurisdiction of any lower court;
(d) All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher. 4. Criminal offenses in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher; 4) Criminal offenses in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher; and
(e) All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved. 5. Error or questions of law. 5) Error or question of law.
(3) Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public interest may require. Such temporary assignment shall not exceed six months without the consent of the judge concerned. (c) Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public interest may require. Such temporary assignment shall not exceed six months without the consent of the judge concerned. (c) Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public interest may require. Such temporary assignment shall not exceed six (6) months without the consent of the judge concerned.
(4) Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice. (d) Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice. (d) Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice.
(5) Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights, pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts, the admission to the practice of law, the Integrated Bar, and legal assistance to the underprivileged. Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases, shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade, and shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights. Rules of procedure of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall remain effective unless disapproved by the Supreme Court. (e) Promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts, except the Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Administrative Court, and Federal Electoral Court, the admission to the practice of law, the integrated bar, and legal assistance to the underprivileged. Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases, shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade, and shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights. (e) Promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts, except the Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Administrative Court, and Federal Electoral Court, the admission to the practice of law, the integrated bar, and legal assistance to the underprivileged. Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases, shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade, and shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.
(f) Subject to the power of Congress to legislate, the Federal Supreme Court may also promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights. (f) Subject to the power of Congress to legislate, the Federal Supreme Court may also promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights.
(g) To appoint all justices and judges of the lower courts upon recommendation by the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council. (g) To appoint all justices and judges of the lower courts upon recommendation by the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council.
(6) Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the Civil Service Law. (h) To appoint all officials and employees of the Federal Supreme Court and of all the lower courts in accordance with the Civil Service Law. (h) To appoint all officials and employees of the Federal Supreme Court and of all the lower courts in accordance with the Civil Service Law.
(i) Exercise administrative supervision over lower courts and the personnel thereof. This includes the power to dismiss and suspend its officials and employees, justices of the lower collegiate courts, and judges of lower courts, upon recommendation of the Judicial Appointment and Disciplinary Council. (i) Exercise administrative supervision over lower courts and the personnel thereof. This includes the power to dismiss and suspend its officials and employees, justices of the lower collegiate courts, and judges of lower courts, upon recommendation of the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council.
SECTION 6. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof.
SECTION 9. The Federal Constitutional Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and eight (8) Associate Justices of whom three (3), including the Chief Justice, shall be appointed by the President, three (3) shall be appointed by the Commission on Appointments, and three (3) shall be appointed by the Federal Supreme Court. All such appointments shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority; Provided, that no appointment shall be made three (3) months before a Presidential election up to the end of the term of the incumbent President.
SECTION 7. SECTION 10. SECTION 10.
(1) No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court or any lower collegiate court unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. A Member of the Supreme Court must be at least forty years of age, and must have been for fifteen years or more a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. (a) No person shall be appointed Member of the Federal Constitutional Court unless he is a natural born citizen of the Philippines, a recognized expert in constitutional law, at the time of his appointment, at least fifty (50) years of age, and for not less than fifteen (15) years, a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. No person shall be appointed Member of the Federal Constitutional Court unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a recognized expert in constitutional law, at least fifty (50) years of age at the time of his appointment, and for not less than fifteen (15) years, a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.
(b) It shall sit en banc, and decide all cases and matters before it with the concurrence of at least five (5) members. It shall sit en banc, and decide all cases and matters before it with the concurrence of at least five (5) members.
SECTION 11. The Federal Constitutional Court shall have the following powers: SECTION 11. The Federal Constitutional Court shall have the following powers:
(a) Exercise exclusive and original jurisdiction over: (a) Exercise exclusive and original jurisdiction over:
1. Disputes involving the constitutionality of a law, treaty, international or executive agreement, including those involving the constitutionality, application, or operation of presidential decrees, proclamations, orders, instructions, ordinances, and other regulations, administrative issuances by the Federal Government or any of its departments and agencies, as well as the laws of the legislative assemblies of the Federated Regions, and the acts and issuances of their executive departments; 1) Disputes involving the constitutionality of a law, treaty, international or executive agreement, including those involving the constitutionality, application, or operation of presidential decrees, proclamations, orders, instructions, ordinances, and other regulations, administrative issuances by the Federal Government or any of its departments and agencies, as well as the laws of the legislative assemblies of the Federated Regions, and the acts and issuances of their executive departments;
2. Any dispute or matter involving questions of constitutionality. 2) Any dispute or matter involving questions of constitutionality.
(b) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases involving writ of habeas corpus, writ of amparo, writ of habeas data, and writ of kalikasan. (b) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases involving writ of habeas corpus, writ of amparo, writ of habeas data, and writ of kalikasan.
(c) Hear and decide impeachment cases provided that a judgment of conviction must be concurred in by at least six (6) members. However, when a member of the Constitutional Court is impeached, the Federal Administrative Court shall act as the Impeachment Court. A judgment of conviction must be concurred in by at least six (6) of its members. (c) Hear and decide impeachment cases; Provided, that a judgment of conviction must be concurred in by at least six (6) members. However, when a member of the Constitutional Court is impeached, the Federal Administrative Court shall act as the Impeachment Court. A judgment of conviction must be concurred in by at least six (6) of its members.
(d) Appoint all officials and employees of the Federal Constitutional Court in accordance with the Civil Service Law and exercise administrative supervision over all its personnel, including the power to dismiss and suspend its officials and employees upon recommendation of the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council. (d) Appoint all officials and employees of the Federal Constitutional Court in accordance with the Civil Service Law and exercise administrative supervision over all its personnel, including the power to dismiss and suspend its officials and employees upon recommendation of the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council.
(e) Promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice, and procedure before it. (e) Promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice, and procedure before it.
(f) Exercise such other functions as may be conferred upon it by law. (f) Exercise such other functions as may be conferred upon it by law.
SECTION 12. The Federal Constitutional Court may, with leave, render advisory opinion when sought by: SECTION 12. The Federal Constitutional Court may, with leave, render advisory opinion when sought by:
(a) The President, Senate President, or Speaker of the House of Representatives on the constitutionality of any enrolled bill of paramount importance; (a) The President, Senate President, or Speaker of the House of Representatives on the constitutionality of any enrolled bill of paramount importance; Provided, that the favorable opinion of the Court notwithstanding, and when such bill has become a law, any citizen of the Philippines may still question the validity if he claims it is unconstitutional as applied to him;
(b) The Senate President or Speaker of the House on the constitutionality of any proposed amendment to or revision of the Constitution;
(c) The Chairman of the Federal Commission on Elections on the constitutionality of any proposal to amend or revise the Constitution or enact, amend, or repeal any federal law by people’s initiative; (b) The Chairman of the Federal Commission on Elections on the constitutionality of any proposal to amend or revise the Constitution or enact, amend, or repeal any federal law by people’s initiative.
(d) Any citizen of the Philippines, relative to the validity of any law which they claim to be unconstitutional as applied to them.
SECTION 13. The Federal Administrative Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and eight (8) Associate Justices. The Chief Justice and three (3) Associate Justices shall be appointed by the President, three (3) Associate Justices shall be appointed by the Commission on Appointments, and three (3) by the Federal Supreme Court en banc. All such appointments shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority. SECTION 13. The Federal Administrative Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and eight (8) Associate Justices. The Chief Justice and three (3) Associate Justices shall be appointed by the President, three (3) Associate Justices shall be appointed by the Commission on Appointments, and three (3) by the Federal Supreme Court en banc. All such appointments shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority; Provided, that no appointment shall be made three (3) months before a Presidential election up to the end of the term of the incumbent President.
SECTION 14.
(a) No person shall be appointed Member of the Federal Administrative Court, unless he is a natural born Filipino citizen, at the time of his appointment, at least fifty (50) years of age, a recognized expert in administrative law, and must have been for at least fifteen (15) years, a judge of a lower court, or engaged in the practice of law. SECTION 14. No person shall be appointed Member of the Federal Administrative Court, unless he is a natural-born Filipino citizen, at least fifty (50) years of age at the time of his appointment, a recognized expert in administrative law, and must have been for at least fifteen (15) years, a judge of a lower court, or engaged in the practice of law.
(b) In all cases and matters brought before it, the Federal Administrative Court in accordance with the rules it will promulgate, may sit en banc or in divisions of three (3) justices each and decisions shall be reached by a concurrence of a majority of the court en banc or the division, as the case may be. In all cases and matters brought before it, the Federal Administrative Court in accordance with its rules, may sit en banc or in divisions of three (3) justices each, and decisions shall be reached by concurrence of a majority of the court en banc or the division, as the case may be.
SECTION 15. SECTION 15.
(a) The Federal Administrative Court shall exercise exclusive jurisdiction to review on appeal or certiorari, in accordance with the rules of procedure it may prescribe, the decisions, judgments, or final orders or resolutions of the Federal Civil Service Commission, the Federal Commission on Elections, the Federal Commission on Audit, the Federal Commission on Human Rights, the Federal Ombudsman Commission, and the Federal Competition Commission, and of all administrative and quasi-judicial bodies in the Federal Republic. (a) The Federal Administrative Court shall exercise exclusive jurisdiction to review on appeal or certiorari, in accordance with its rules, the decisions, judgments, or final orders or resolutions of the Federal Civil Service Commission, the Federal Commission on Elections, the Federal Commission on Audit, the Federal Commission on Human Rights, the Federal Ombudsman Commission, and the Federal Competition Commission, and of all administrative and quasi-judicial bodies in the Federal Republic.
(b) It shall, with leave, render an advisory opinion, if sought by any political party to determine whether the Federal Commission on Elections has complied with the processes, procedures, and preparations relative to the conduct of the elections, which may materially affect the results of the election. (b) It shall, with leave, render an advisory opinion, if sought by any political party to determine whether the Federal Commission on Elections has complied with the processes, procedures, and preparations relative to the conduct of any election, which may materially affect its results.
(c) It shall appoint all officials and employees of the Federal Administrative Court in accordance with the Civil Service Law and exercise administrative supervision over all its personnel. This includes the power to dismiss and suspend its officials and employees upon recommendation of the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council. (c) It shall appoint all officials and employees of the Federal Administrative Court in accordance with the Civil Service Law and exercise administrative supervision over all its personnel. This includes the power to dismiss and suspend its officials and employees upon recommendation of the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council.
(d) It shall promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice, and procedure before it. (d) It shall promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice, and procedure before it.
(e) It shall exercise such other powers and functions as may be conferred upon it by law. (e) It shall exercise such other powers and functions as may be conferred upon it by law.
SECTION 16. There shall be a Federal Electoral Court composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen (14) Associate Justices. The Chief Justice and four (4) Associate Justices of the Federal Electoral Court shall be appointed by the President, five (5) Associate Justices by the Commission on Appointments, and five (5) Associate Justices by the Federal Constitutional Court sitting en banc. All such appointments shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority. SECTION 16. There shall be a Federal Electoral Court composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen (14) Associate Justices. The Chief Justice and four (4) Associate Justices of the Federal Electoral Court shall be appointed by the President, five (5) Associate Justices by the Commission on Appointments, and five (5) by the Federal Constitutional Court sitting en banc. All such appointments shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority; Provided, that no appointment shall be made three (3) months before a Presidential election up to the end of the term of the incumbent President.
SECTION 17. SECTION 17.
(a) No person shall be appointed Member of the Federal Electoral Court unless he is a natural born Filipino citizen, at the time of his appointment, at least fifty (50) years of age, an election law expert, must have been judge of lower courts or engaged in the practice of law for at least fifteen (15) years, and have not been a candidate for any elective position in the immediately preceding elections. No person shall be appointed Member of the Federal Electoral Court unless he is a natural-born Filipino citizen, at least fifty (50) years of age at the time of his appointment, an election law expert, must have been a judge of lower courts or engaged in the practice of law for at least fifteen (15) years, and must not have been a candidate for any elective position in the immediately preceding election.
(b) In all cases and matters brought before it, the Federal Electoral Court, in accordance with the rules it will promulgate, may sit en banc or in divisions of three (3) justices each and decisions shall be reached by a concurrence of a majority of the court en banc or the division, as the case may be. In all cases and matters brought before it, the Federal Electoral Court, in accordance with the rules it will promulgate, may sit en banc or in divisions of three (3) justices each, and decisions shall be reached by concurrence of a majority of the court en banc or the division, as the case may be.
SECTION 18. The Federal Electoral Court shall have the following powers: SECTION 18. The Federal Electoral Court shall have the following powers:
(a) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of the President, Vice-President, Members of both Houses of Congress; Provided, that contests relating to the President and Vice-President shall be decided by the Federal Electoral Court en banc; Provided further, that contests relating to the Members of Congress shall be heard and decided by the Federal Electoral Court in division and proceedings shall be held within the region where the case arose. Decisions of the Federal Electoral Court shall be reached by the concurrence of a majority of the Court en banc or in Division as the case may be. Any decision of the Court in Division may be elevated to the Court en banc only on questions of law in accordance with its rules of procedure. (a) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of the President, Vice President, Members of both Houses of Congress; Provided, that contests relating to the President and Vice President shall be decided by the Federal Electoral Court en banc; Provided further, that contests relating to the Members of Congress shall be heard and decided by the Federal Electoral Court in division and proceedings shall be held within the region where the case arose. Decisions of the Federal Electoral Court shall be reached by the concurrence of a majority of the Court en banc or in Division as the case may be. Any decision of the Court in Division may be elevated to the Court en banc only on questions of law in accordance with its rules of procedure.
(b) Exercise exclusive authority to review, on appeal or certiorari, all decisions, resolutions, and orders of: (b) Exercise exclusive jurisdiction to review, on appeal or certiorari, all decisions, resolutions, and orders of:
1. Trial courts of proper jurisdiction in all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of other elective regional, provincial, city, municipal, and barangay officials; and 1) Trial courts of proper jurisdiction in all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of other elective regional, provincial, city, municipal, and barangay officials; and
2. The Commission on Elections with respect to all questions affecting elections, including the qualifications of candidates and political parties, and other pre- election controversies, and the conduct of plebiscites and referenda; 2) The Commission on Elections with respect to all questions affecting elections, including the qualifications of candidates and political parties, and other pre-election controversies, and the conduct of plebiscites and referenda;
(c) Promulgate its own rules of procedure; and (c) Promulgate its own rules of procedure; and
(d) Perform other functions as may be established by law. (d) Perform other functions as may be established by law.
(2) The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts, but no person may be appointed judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar.
(3) A Member of the Judiciary must be a person of proven competence, integrity, probity, and independence.
SECTION 8. SECTION 19. SECTION 19.
(1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of the Supreme Court composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman, the Secretary of Justice, and a representative of the Congress as ex officio Members, a representative of the Integrated Bar, a professor of law, a retired Member of the Supreme Court, and a representative of the private sector. (a) There shall be a Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council composed of the following ex-officio members:
1. Chief Justice of the Federal Supreme Court;
2. Chief Justice of the Federal Constitutional Court;
3. Chief Justice of the Federal Administrative Court;
4. Chief Justice of the Federal Electoral Court;
5. Chairperson of the Federal Ombudsman Commission;
6. Court Administrator of the Supreme Court;
7. A representative from the Senate belonging to the Minority;
8. A representative from the House of Representatives belonging to the Majority;
9. Chairperson of the Civil Service Commission;
10. Chairperson of the Commission on Audit;
11. Secretary of Justice;
(a) There shall be a Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council composed of the following ex-officio members:
1) Chief Justice of the Federal Supreme Court;
2) Chief Justice of the Federal Constitutional Court;
3) Chief Justice of the Federal Administrative Court;
4) Chief Justice of the Federal Electoral Court;
5) Chairperson of the Federal Ombudsman Commission;
6) Court Administrator of the Supreme Court;
7) A representative from the Senate belonging to the Minority;
8) A representative from the House of Representatives belonging to the Majority;
9) Chairperson of the Civil Service Commission;
10) Chairperson of the Commission on Audit; and the
11) Secretary of Justice;
(b) The Council shall have the following regular members:
1. A representative from and designated by the Integrated Bar of the Philippines;
2. A law professor designated by the Philippine Association of Law Schools;
3. A representative from and designated by the Association of Generals and Flag Officers;
4. A retired member of the Federal Supreme Court to be designated by the Association of the Retired Justices of the Federal Supreme Court.
(b) The Council shall have the following regular members:
1) A representative from and designated by the Integrated Bar of the Philippines;
2) A law professor designated by the Philippine Association of Law Schools;
3) A representative from and designated by the Association of Generals and Flag Officers; and
4) A retired member of the Federal Supreme Court to be designated by the Association of the Retired Justices of the Federal Supreme Court.
(2) The regular Members of the Council shall be appointed by the President for a term of four years with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. Of the Members first appointed, the representative of the Integrated Bar shall serve for four years, the professor of law for three years, the retired Justice for two years, and the representative of the private sector for one year. (c) The regular members shall serve for a term of four (4) years without reappointment and their appointment shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority. (c) The regular members shall serve for a term of four (4) years without reappointment and their appointment shall not require confirmation. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety (90) days from the occurrence thereof by the same appointing authority.
(d) The Chairmanship of the Council shall be rotated every two (2) years in the following order beginning with the Chief Justice of the Federal Supreme Court, the Chief Justice of the Federal Constitutional Court, the Chief Justice of the Federal Administrative Court, and the Chief Justice of the Federal Electoral Court. (d) The Chairmanship of the Council shall be rotated every two (2) years in the following order beginning with the Chief Justice of the Federal Supreme Court, the Chief Justice of the Federal Constitutional Court, the Chief Justice of the Federal Administrative Court, and the Chief Justice of the Federal Electoral Court.
(3) The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the Council and shall keep a record of its proceedings.
(4) The regular Members of the Council shall receive such emoluments as may be determined by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall provide in its annual budget the appropriations for the Council.
SECTION 20. There shall be an Executive Board which shall provide administrative and operational support to the Council. It shall be composed of a Secretary and two (2) Deputy Secretaries. One Deputy Secretary shall be in charge of the Appointments Committee that will screen the qualifications of all the candidates for all the lower courts. The other Deputy Secretary shall be in charge of the Disciplinary Committee that will investigate the complaints against the officers and employees of the judiciary. SECTION 20. There shall be an Executive Board which shall provide administrative and operational support to the Council. It shall be composed of a Secretary and two (2) Deputy Secretaries. One Deputy Secretary shall be in charge of the Appointments Committee that will screen the qualifications of all the candidates for all the lower courts. The other Deputy Secretary shall be in charge of the Disciplinary Committee that will investigate the complaints against the officers and employees of the Judiciary.
SECTION 21. The budget of the Council shall be included in the budget of the Judiciary. The regular members shall receive such emoluments as may be determined by the ex officio members of the Council, in accordance with law. SECTION 21. The budget of the Council shall be included in the budget of the Judiciary. The regular members shall receive such emoluments as may be determined by the ex officio members of the Council, in accordance with law.
(5) The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to the Judiciary. It may exercise such other functions and duties as the Supreme Court may assign to it. SECTION 22. The Council shall have the following powers and duties: SECTION 22. The Council shall have the following powers and duties:
(a) To conduct a thorough search and investigation to find the most qualified candidates for the vacant positions for all Justices and Judges of the lower courts; (a) To conduct a thorough search and investigation to find the most qualified candidates for the vacant positions for all justices and judges of the lower courts;
(b) To recommend to the proper appointing authority the promotion or transfer of justices and judges; (b) To recommend to the proper appointing authority the promotion or transfer of justices and judges;
(c) To investigate disciplinary cases filed against the members, officials, and employees of the Judiciary. It shall submit its findings to the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral court which shall have final disciplinary authority over their respective officials and employees; (c) To investigate disciplinary cases filed against the members, officials, and employees of the Judiciary. It shall submit its findings to the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, or the Federal Electoral Court which shall have final disciplinary authority over their respective officials and employees;
(d) Promulgate its own rules and regulations and publish the same; (d) Promulgate its own rules and regulations and publish the same; and
(e) Perform other powers and functions as may be prescribed by law. (e) Perform other powers and functions as may be prescribed by law.
SECTION 23. The Council shall decide by a majority vote of all the members sitting en banc. Proxy voting shall not be allowed. SECTION 23. The Council shall decide by a majority vote of all the members sitting en banc. Proxy voting shall not be allowed.
SECTION 24. The conclusions of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court in any case submitted to it for decision shall be reached in consultation before the writing of the opinion of the Court. A certification to this effect, signed by the Chief Justice, shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the parties. Any Member who took no part, or dissented, or abstained from a decision or resolution must state the reason therefor. The same requirements shall be observed by all lower collegiate courts. SECTION 24. The conclusions of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court in any case submitted to it for decision shall be reached in consultation before the writing of the opinion of the Court. A certification to this effect, signed by the Chief Justice, shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the parties. Any Member who took no part, or dissented, or abstained from a decision or resolution must state the reason therefor. The same requirements shall be observed by all lower collegiate courts.
SECTION 9. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council for every vacancy. Such appointments need no confirmation.
For the lower courts, the President shall issue the appointments within ninety days from the submission of the list.
SECTION 10. The salary of the Chief Justice and of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and of judges of lower courts shall be fixed by law. During their continuance in office, their salary shall not be decreased.
SECTION 11. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall hold office during good behavior until they reached the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. The Supreme Court en banc shall have the power to discipline judges of lower courts, or order their dismissal by a vote of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon.
SECTION 12. The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by law shall not be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions.
SECTION 13. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted to it for decision en banc or in division shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a Member for the writing of the opinion of the Court. A certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the parties. Any Member who took no part, or dissented, or abstained from a decision or resolution must state the reason therefor. The same requirements shall be observed by all lower collegiate courts.
SECTION 25. SECTION 25.
SECTION 14. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based. (a) No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based.
No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor. (b) No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor. No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor.
SECTION 15. SECTION 26. SECTION 26.
(1) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or resolved within twenty-four months from date of submission for the Supreme Court, and, unless reduced by the Supreme Court, twelve months for all lower collegiate courts, and three months for all other lower courts. (a) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or resolved within twenty-four (24) months from date of filing for the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court, and unless reduced by the Federal Supreme Court, twelve (12) months for all lower collegiate courts, and three (3) months for all other lower courts. (a) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or resolved within twenty-four (24) months from date of filing for the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court and, unless reduced by the Federal Supreme Court, twelve (12) months for all lower collegiate courts and, in the case of all other lower courts, three (3) months from the date that cases are submitted for decision or resolution.
(2) A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pending, brief, or memorandum required by the Rules of Court or by the court itself.
(3) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period, a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice or the presiding judge shall forthwith be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter, and served upon the parties. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been rendered or issued within said period. (b) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period, a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, or the Federal Electoral Court, or the presiding justice or judge of the lower court shall forthwith be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter, and served upon the parties. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been rendered or issued within said period. (b) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period, a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, or the Federal Electoral Court, or the presiding justice or judge of the lower court shall forthwith be issued, and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter, and served upon the parties. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been rendered or issued within said period.
(4) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period, the court, without prejudice to such responsibility as may have been incurred in consequence thereof, shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto for determination, without further delay. (c) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period, the court, without prejudice to such responsibility as may have been incurred in consequence thereof, shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto for determination, without further delay. (c) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period, the court, without prejudice to such responsibility as may have been incurred in consequence thereof, shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto for determination, without further delay.
SECTION 16. The Supreme Court shall, within thirty days from the opening of each regular session of the Congress, submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the operations and activities of the Judiciary. SECTION 27. The Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court shall, within thirty (30) days from the opening of each regular session of the Congress, submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the operations and activities of the Judiciary. SECTION 27. The Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, and the Federal Electoral Court shall, within thirty (30) days from the opening of each regular session of the Congress, submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the operations and activities of the Judiciary.
SECTION 28. There shall be at least one (1) Federal Court of Appeals in each Federated Region, at least one (1) Federal District Trial Court in constituent cities and provinces of federated regions, and such other lower courts as may be necessary for the effective administration and speedy delivery of justice. SECTION 28. There shall be at least one (1) Federal Court of Appeals in each Federated Region, at least one (1) Federal District Trial Court in constituent cities and provinces of Federated Regions, and such other lower courts as may be necessary for the effective administration and speedy delivery of justice.
SECTION 29. No lower court, whether federal or regional, shall be created without the recommendation of the Supreme Court. Subject to the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council, the Supreme Court shall appoint the all the judges of the lower courts and the justices of the collegiate courts. SECTION 29. No lower court, whether federal or regional, shall be created without the recommendation of the Supreme Court. Subject to the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments and Disciplinary Council, the Supreme Court shall appoint the all the judges of the lower courts and the justices of the collegiate courts.

Constitutional Commissions

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article IX

Article X

Article X

A. Common Provisions A. Common Provisions A. Common Provisions
SECTION 1. There shall be independent Constitutional Commissions in the Federal Government. SECTION 1. There shall be independent Constitutional Commissions in the Federal Government.
SECTION 1. The Constitutional Commissions, which shall be independent, are the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit. SECTION 2. The Constitutional Commissions are the Federal Civil Service Commission, the Federal Commission on Elections, the Federal Commission on Audit, the Federal Commission on Human Rights, the Federal Ombudsman Commission, and the Federal Competition Commission. SECTION 2. The Constitutional Commissions are the Federal Civil Service Commission, the Federal Commission on Elections, the Federal Commission on Audit, the Federal Commission on Human Rights, the Federal Ombudsman Commission, and the Federal Competition Commission.
SECTION 3. The Chairpersons and the Commissioners of the Constitutional Commissions shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. SECTION 3. The Chairpersons and the members of the Constitutional Commissions shall be appointed by the President with the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment.
SECTION 4. Appointment to any vacancy shall only be for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. All vacancies shall be filled within ninety (90) days after they occur by the same appointing authority. SECTION 4. Appointment to any vacancy shall only be for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. All vacancies shall be filled within ninety (90) days after they occur by the same appointing authority.
SECTION 2. No Member of a Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure, hold any other office or employment. Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of any business which in any way be affected by the functions of his office, nor shall he be financially interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government, any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. SECTION 5. Unless consistent with the primary functions of the office, no member of a Constitutional Commission, shall, during his tenure, hold any other office or employment. Neither shall they engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of any business which in any way be affected by the functions of their office, nor shall they be financially interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government, any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. SECTION 5. Unless consistent with the primary functions of the office, no member of a Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure, hold any other office or employment. Neither shall they engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of any business which, in any way, may be affected by the functions of their office, nor shall they be financially interested, directly or indirectly, in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by the government, any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries.
SECTION 6. All commissioners may be removed by impeachment.
SECTION 3. The salary of the Chairman and the Commissioners shall be fixed by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. SECTION 7. The salary of the Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be fixed by law. During their continuance in office, their salary shall not be decreased. Neither shall their retirement and other benefits be reduced. SECTION 7. The salary of the Chairperson and the members shall be fixed by law. During their continuance in office, their salary shall not be decreased. Neither shall their retirement and other benefits be reduced.
SECTION 4. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with law. SECTION 8. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with Federal Law. SECTION 8. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with federal law.
SECTION 5. The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their approved annual appropriations shall be automatically and regularly released.

SECTION 9. The Constitutional Commissions shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their appropriations may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and, after approval, shall be automatically and regularly released.

They shall have the power to retain and use their savings or income for any of their activities or undertakings except the grant of additional bonuses and incentives to their officials and personnel.

SECTION 9. The Constitutional Commissions shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their appropriations may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and, after approval, shall be automatically and regularly released.

They shall have the power to retain and use their savings or income for any of their activities or undertakings, except the grant of additional bonuses and incentives to their officials and personnel.

SECTION 6. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules however shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights. SECTION 10. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules and regulations concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules, however shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights. SECTION 10. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules and regulations concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules, however, shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.
SECTION 11. In case of resignation, death, or permanent inability of the Chairperson of any Commission to discharge his or her functions, the most senior Commissioner shall serve as acting head until the appointment of a permanent one. SECTION 11. In case of resignation, death, or permanent disability of the Chairperson of any Commission to discharge his functions, the most senior member shall serve as acting head until the appointment of a permanent one.
SECTION 7. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members any case or matter brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law, any decision, order, or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof.
SECTION 8. Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be provided by law.
SECTION 12. No spouse or relative by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of any of the Commissioners may personally appear as counsel or agent on any matter pending before the Commission concerned or transact business, directly or indirectly, therein during their incumbency and within one year from cessation of office. SECTION 12. No spouse or relative of any of the Chairpersons or members within the fourth civil degree of consanguinity or affinity may personally appear as counsel or agent on any matter pending before the Commission concerned or transact business therein, directly or indirectly, during their incumbency and within one (1) year from cessation from office.
B. The Civil Service Commission B. Federal Civil Service Commission
SECTION 1. SECTION 1. SECTION 1.
(1) The Civil Service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. (a) There shall be a Federal Civil Service Commission that shall administer the civil service which embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Federal and Federated Regional Governments, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters and their subsidiaries. (a) There shall be a Federal Civil Service Commission that shall administer the civil service which embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Federal and Regional Governments, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters and their subsidiaries.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven years, a Commissioner for five years, and another Commissioner for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. (b) Appointments in the civil service shall be based solely on merit and fitness to be determined by competitive examination or other legal requirements, except to positions which are primarily confidential, policy determining and highly technical. (b) Appointments in the civil service shall be based solely on merit and fitness to be determined by competitive examination or other legal requirements, except to positions which are primarily confidential, policy-determining, and highly technical.
SECTION 2.
(1) The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Government, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters.
(2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined, as far as practicable, and, except to positions which are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical, by competitive examination.
(3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law. (c) No official or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law. (c) No official or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended, except for cause as provided by law.
(4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering or partisan political campaign. (d) No official or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering or partisan political campaign. (d) No official or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering or partisan political campaign.
(5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees. (e) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to all government employees. (e) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to all government employees.
(6) Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as may be provided by law. (f) Temporary employees in government service shall be given such protection as may be provided by law. (f) Temporary employees in government service shall be given such protection as may be provided by law.

SECTION 2. Only citizens of the Philippines may be appointed or hold public office. Those who hold dual citizenship shall, as a condition to the assumption of office or government employment, renounce allegiance to a foreign sovereignty.

All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution.

SECTION 2. Only citizens of the Philippines may be appointed to or hold public office. Those who hold dual citizenship shall, as a condition to the assumption of office or government employment, renounce allegiance to a foreign sovereignty.

All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend the Constitution.

SECTION 3. No candidate who has lost in any election shall be appointed to any office in the Government or any government-owned or controlled corporations and in any of their subsidiaries within one (1) year after such election. SECTION 3. No candidate who lost in any election shall be appointed to any office in the government or any government-owned or controlled corporation and in any of their subsidiaries within one (1) year immediately following such election.
SECTION 3. The Civil Service Commission, as the central personnel agency of the Government, shall establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources development programs for all levels and ranks, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability. It shall submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on its personnel programs.
SECTION 4. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution.
SECTION 5. The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for their positions.
SECTION 6. No candidate who has lost in any election shall, within one year after such election, be appointed to any office in the Government or any government-owned or controlled corporations or in any of their subsidiaries. SECTION 3. No candidate who has lost in any election shall be appointed to any office in the Government or any government-owned or controlled corporations and in any of their subsidiaries within one (1) year after such election.
SECTION 4. SECTION 4.
SECTION 7. No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or position during his tenure. (a) No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or position during his tenure. (a) No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or position during his tenure.
(b) A person holding an appointive public office or position, including active members of the armed forces, shall be considered ipso facto resigned from office upon filing of a certificate of candidacy.
Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position, no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. (c) Unless otherwise allowed by law, or by the primary functions of the position, no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Federal and Federated Regional Governments or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. (c) Unless allowed by law, or by the primary functions of the position, no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Federal and Regional Governments or any of their subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries.
SECTION 5. SECTION 5.
SECTION 8. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional, double, or indirect compensation, unless specifically authorized by law, nor accept without the consent of the Congress, any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign government. (a) Unless specifically authorized by law, no elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional, double, or indirect compensation, nor accept without the consent of the Federal Congress, any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign government. Unless authorized by law, no elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional or indirect compensation, nor accept without the consent of the Federal Congress, any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign government.
Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional, double, or indirect compensation. (b) Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional, double, or indirect compensation. Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional, double, or indirect compensation.
SECTION 6. No appointment in the civil service shall be made in favor of a relative within the fourth civil degree of consanguinity or affinity, of the appointing or recommending authority, or of the chief of the bureau or office or of the person exercising immediate supervision over the appointee. SECTION 6. No appointment in the civil service shall be made in favor of a relative within the fourth civil degree of consanguinity or affinity of the appointing or recommending authority, or of the chief of the bureau or office, or of the person exercising immediate supervision over the appointee.
SECTION 7. There shall be no discrimination against any person seeking employment in the civil service by reason of political or religious affiliations or opinions, sex, status, age, physical appearance or disability, or ethnicity. SECTION 7. There shall be no discrimination against any person seeking employment in the civil service by reason of political or religious affiliations or opinions, sex, status, age, physical appearance or disability, or ethnicity.
SECTION 8. SECTION 8.
(a) The Federal Civil Service Commission, as the central human resource agency of the Government, shall establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system; integrate all human resources development plans; enhance the capacities of all civil servants; establish standards for position classification and compensation, selection, recruitment, and placement of civil servants; and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability. It shall submit to the President and the Federal Congress an annual report on its human resource programs. (a) The Federal Civil Service Commission, as the central human resource agency of the government, shall establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources development plans, enhance the capacities of all civil servants, establish standards for position classification and compensation, selection, recruitment, and placement of civil servants, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability. It shall submit to the President and the Federal Congress an annual report on its human resource programs.
(b) In the discharge of its duties, the Civil Service Commission shall not impair the autonomy of federated regions. (b) In the discharge of its duties, the Federal Civil Service Commission shall not impair the autonomy of federated regions.
(c) The Commission may review on appeal final orders and decisions of the Regional Civil Service Commission. (c) The Commission may review on appeal final orders and decisions of the Regional Civil Service Commissions.
SECTION 9. The Federal Congress shall, upon consultation with the Federal Civil Service Commission, the Department of Budget and Management and the Department of Finance, provide for the minimum standards of compensation for public officials and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to and the qualifications required for the positions. SECTION 9. The Federal Congress shall, upon consultation with the Federal Civil Service Commission, the Department of Budget and Management, and the Department of Finance, provide for the minimum standards of compensation for public officials and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for, the positions.
SECTION 10. SECTION 10.
(a) The Federal Civil Service Commission shall be composed of a Chairperson and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five (35) and not more than sixty-five (65) years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. At least one Commissioner shall be a member of the Philippine Bar and has been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten (10) years. The Federal Civil Service Commission shall be composed of a Chairperson and two (2) Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five (35) but not more than sixty-five (65) years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the election immediately preceding their appointment. At least one (1) Commissioner shall be a member of the Philippine Bar and has been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten (10) years.
(b) The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairperson shall hold office for seven (7) years and two members for five (5) years. The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairperson shall hold office for seven (7) years and two (2) members for five (5) years.
SECTION 11. The Federal Civil Service Commission shall coordinate with the Career Executive Service Board and its equivalent, in the implementation of the rules and standards in Career Executive Service (CES). SECTION 11. The Federal Civil Service Commission shall coordinate with the Career Executive Service Board or its equivalent in the implementation of the rules and standards in Career Executive Service (CES).

SECTION 12. The Federal Civil Service Commission shall decide by a majority vote of its members any case or matter brought before it within one year from the date of its filing.

Decisions and rulings of the Commission shall be final and executory and may only be reviewed by the Federal Administrative Court on certiorari as the rules of the Federal Administrative Court may provide.

SECTION 12. The Federal Civil Service Commission shall decide, by a majority vote of its members, any case or matter brought before it within one (1) year from the date of its filing.

Decisions and rulings of the Commission shall be final and executory and may only be reviewed by the Federal Administrative Court on certiorari as the rules of the Federal Administrative Court may provide.

SECTION 13. SECTION 13.
(a) There shall be a Civil Service Commission in each Federated Region which shall be guided by the minimum standards and policies set by the Federal Civil Service Commission. There shall be a Civil Service Commission in each Federated Region which shall be guided by the minimum standards and policies set by the Federal Civil Service Commission.
(b) Accordingly, the Federated Regional Assemblies may enact laws which provide compensation, standards, qualifications and policies for public officials and employees under their respective jurisdictions higher than the minimum standards set by the Federal Congress, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to the qualifications needed for the position, and the requirements in their respective regions. Such enactments shall govern the Regional Civil Service Commission. The Regional Assemblies may enact laws which provide for the standards, policies, qualifications, and compensation of public officials and employees under their respective jurisdictions equal to or higher than the minimum standards set by the Federal Congress, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to the qualifications needed for the position, and the requirements in their respective regions. Such enactments shall govern the Regional Civil Service Commission.
SECTION 14. The Regional Governor in the Federated Regions shall appoint members of the Regional Civil Service Commission with the consent of the Regional Assembly. They may not be removed except for cause as provided by law. The Regional Civil Service Commission shall have the authority to select their personnel and manage their respective offices. SECTION 14. The Regional Governor shall appoint members of the Regional Civil Service Commission with the consent of the Regional Assembly. They may not be removed, except for cause as provided by law. The Regional Civil Service Commission shall have the authority to select their personnel and manage their respective offices.
C. The Commission on Elections C. Federal Commission on Elections C. Federal Commission on Elections
SECTION 1. SECTION 1. SECTION 1.
(1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the immediately preceding elections. However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be Members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. (a) There shall be a Federal Commission on Elections composed of a Chairperson and six Commissioners, two from Luzon, two from Visayas and two from Mindanao with one representing the Bangsamoro, who shall be natural born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointments, at least thirty-five (35) years of age, holders of a college degree and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the immediately preceding elections. One should be a member of the Philippine bar and has been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten (10) years. There shall be a Federal Commission on Elections composed of a Chairperson and six (6) Commissioners, two (2) from Luzon, two (2) from Visayas, and two (2) from Mindanao one of whom shall represent the Bangsamoro, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, at least thirty-five (35) years of age at the time of their appointment, holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the immediately preceding election. One (1) should be a member of the Philippine bar and should have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten (10) years.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, three Members shall hold office for seven years, two Members for five years, and the last Members for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. (b) The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, three Members shall hold office for seven (7) years, two Members for five (5) years, and the last Member for three (3) years, without reappointment. The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, three (3) members shall hold office for seven (7) years, two (2) members for five (5) years, and the last member for three (3) years, without reappointment.
SECTION 2. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions: SECTION 2. The Federal Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions: SECTION 2. The Federal Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions:
(1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall. (a) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall; (a) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall;
(b) Administer all election activities including the determination of the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of voters.
(2) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial, and city officials, and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction, or involving elective barangay officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction.
Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the Commission on election contests involving elective municipal and barangay offices shall be final, executory, and not appealable.
(3) Decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections, including determination of the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of voters.
(4) Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections. (b) Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections; (c) Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections;

(5) Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organizations, or coalitions which, in addition to other requirements, must present their platform or program of government; and accredit citizens’ arms of the Commission on Elections. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. Those which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreign government shall likewise be refused registration.

Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties, organizations, coalitions, or candidates related to elections constitute interference in national affairs, and, when accepted, shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission, in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by law.

(c) Register political parties, organizations, or coalitions after sufficient publication; (d) Register political parties, organizations, or coalitions;
(6) File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters; investigate and, where appropriate, prosecute cases of violations of election laws, including acts or omissions constituting election frauds, offenses, and malpractices. (d) File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters; (e) File petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters;
(e) Conduct investigations in cases involving election offenses for the purpose of filing criminal complaints before the appropriate prosecution offices; (f) Conduct investigations in cases involving election offenses for the purpose of filing criminal complaints before the appropriate prosecution offices;
(7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending, including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidacies. (f) Recommend to the Federal Congress effective measures to regulate election spending, including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidacies; (g) Recommend to the Federal Congress effective measures to regulate election spending, including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidacies;
(8) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision. (g) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision; (h) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision; and
(9) Submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall. (h) Submit to the President and the Federal Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall. (i) Submit to the President and the Federal Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall.
SECTION 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two divisions, and shall promulgate its rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases, including pre- proclamation controversies. All such election cases shall be heard and decided in division, provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions shall be decided by the Commission en banc.
SECTION 4. The Commission may, during the election period, SECTION 3. The Commission may, during the election period: SECTION 3. The Commission may, during the election period:
supervise or regulate the enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities, (a) Supervise or regulate the enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities; (a) Supervise or regulate the enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities;
media of communication or information, (b) Supervise or regulate media of communication or information; (b) Supervise or regulate media of communication or information; and
all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government- owned or controlled corporation or its subsidiary. Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity, time, and space, and the right to reply, including reasonable, equal rates therefor, for public information campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections. (c) Supervise or regulate all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation or its subsidiary. Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity, time, and space, and the right to reply, including reasonable, equal rates therefor, for public information campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections. (c) Supervise or regulate all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the government or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity, time, and space, and the right to reply, including reasonable, equal rates therefor, for public information campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections.
SECTION 5. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws, rules, and regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission. SECTION 4. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws, rules, and regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission. SECTION 4. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws, rules, and regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission.
SECTION 6. A free and open party system shall be allowed to evolve according to the free choice of the people, subject to the provisions of this Article.
SECTION 7. No votes cast in favor of a political party, organization, or coalition shall be valid, except for those registered under the party-list system as provided in this Constitution.
SECTION 8. Political parties, or organizations or coalitions registered under the party-list system, shall not be represented in the voters’ registration boards, boards of election inspectors, boards of canvassers, or other similar bodies. However, they shall be entitled to appoint poll watchers in accordance with law.
SECTION 9. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety days before the day of the election and shall end thirty days after. SECTION 5. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety (90) days before the day of the election and shall end thirty (30) days after. SECTION 5. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety (90) days before the day of the election and shall end thirty (30) days after.
SECTION 10. Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination. SECTION 6. Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination. SECTION 6. Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination.
SECTION 11. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls, shall be provided in the regular or special appropriations and, once approved, shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairman of the Commission. SECTION 7. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls, shall be provided in the regular or special appropriations and, once approved, shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairperson of the Federal Commission on Elections. SECTION 7. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls shall be provided in the regular or special appropriations and, once approved, shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairperson of the Federal Commission on Elections.
SECTION 8. The appreciation of ballots, counting of votes, and the overall conduct of any election, whether it be manual, automated or a combination of both, shall be accessible, verifiable, and open to public scrutiny at all stages. SECTION 8. The appreciation of ballots, counting of votes, and the overall conduct of any election, whether it be manual, automated, or a combination of both, shall be accessible, verifiable, and open to public scrutiny at all stages.
SECTION 9. Not later than six months before any election, any registered voter or registered political party may file with the Federal Administrative Court a petition to determine compliance with all processes, procedures and preparations relative to the conduct of the elections. SECTION 9. Not later than six (6) months before any election, any registered voter or registered political party may file, with the Federal Administrative Court, a petition to determine compliance with all processes, procedures, and preparations relative to the conduct of the elections.
D. Commission on Audit D. Federal Commission on Audit D. Federal Commission on Audit
SECTION 1. SECTION 1. SECTION 1.
(1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, certified public accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience, or members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. At no time shall all Members of the Commission belong to the same profession. (a) There shall be a Federal Commission on Audit composed of a Chairperson and four (4) Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five (35) years of age, certified public accountants with not less than ten (10) years of auditing experience, or members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten (10) years, or management experts with extensive experience on quality management and quality standards, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the election immediately preceding their appointment. At no time shall all Members of the Commission belong to the same profession. There shall be a Federal Commission on Audit composed of a Chairperson and four (4) Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, at least thirty-five (35) years of age at the time of their appointment, certified public accountants, or members of the Philippine Bar, or management and quality experts with at least ten (10) years of experience in their respective fields, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the election immediately preceding their appointment. At no time shall all members of the Commission belong to the same profession.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven years, one Commissioner for five years, and the other Commissioner for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. (b) The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairperson shall hold office for seven (7) years, one (1) Commissioner for five (5) years, and the other Commissioner for three (3) years, without reappointment. The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairperson and two (2) Commissioners shall hold office for seven (7) years, and the other two (2) Commissioners for five (5) years, without reappointment.
SECTION 2. SECTION 2. SECTION 2.
(1) The Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine, audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, and on a post-audit basis: (a) constitutional bodies, commissions and offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under this Constitution; (b) autonomous state colleges and universities; (c) other government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries; and (d) such non-governmental entities receiving subsidy or equity, directly or indirectly, from or through the Government, which are required by law or the granting institution to submit to such audit as a condition of subsidy or equity. However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate, the Commission may adopt such measures, including temporary or special pre-audit, as are necessary and appropriate to correct the deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto. (a) The Federal Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine, audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenues and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and properties, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Federal and Federated Regional Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and on a post-audit basis: (a) The Federal Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine, audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenues and receipts of, and expenditures of or uses of funds and properties owned or held in trust by, and conduct performance audits of, the Federal or Regional Governments, any of their subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, and on a post-audit basis:
(1) constitutional bodies, commissions and offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under this Constitution; 1) Constitutional bodies, commissions, and offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under the Constitution;
(2) autonomous state colleges and universities; 2) Autonomous state colleges and universities;
(3) other government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries; and 3) Other government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries; and
(4) such non-governmental entities receiving subsidy or equity, directly or indirectly, from or through the Government, which are required by law or the granting institution to submit to such audit as a condition of subsidy or equity. 4) Non-governmental entities receiving subsidy or equity, directly or indirectly, from or through the government, which are required by law or the granting institution to submit to such audit as a condition of subsidy or equity.
However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate, the Commission may adopt such measures, including temporary or special pre-audit, as are necessary and appropriate to correct the deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto. (b) However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate, the Commission may adopt such measures, including temporary or special pre-audit, as are necessary and appropriate to correct the deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto.
(2) The Commission shall have exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination, establish the techniques and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations, including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government funds and properties. (b) The Commission shall have exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination, establish the techniques and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations, including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government funds and properties. (c) The Commission shall have exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination, establish the techniques and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations, including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of government funds and properties.
SECTION 3. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or its subsidiary in any guise whatever, or any investment of public funds, from the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit. SECTION 3. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Federal or Federated Regional Government or its subsidiary in any guise whatever, or any investment of public funds, from the jurisdiction of the Federal Commission on Audit. SECTION 3. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Federal or Regional Government or their subsidiary in any form, or any investment of public funds, from the jurisdiction of the Federal Commission on Audit.
SECTION 4. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress, within the time fixed by law, an annual report covering the financial condition and operation of the Government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and non-governmental entities subject to its audit, and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law. SECTION 4. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress, within the time fixed by law, an annual report covering the financial condition, operation, and performance of the Federal and Federated Regional Government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and non-governmental entities subject to its audit, and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law. SECTION 4. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress, within the time fixed by law, an annual report covering the financial condition, operation, and performance of the Federal and Regional Governments, their subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, and non- governmental entities subject to its audit, and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law.
SECTION 5. The Congress shall enact a Federal Auditing Code that will include the manner and limits of audit scope on the Federal and Federated Regions and their instrumentalities, or any of their subdivision, agency or instrumentality, as well as government owned and controlled corporations with original charters or their subsidiaries, and the guidelines on the requirements for pre-audit. The Federal Commission on Audit shall promulgate auditing rules in conformity with the Federal Auditing Code. Subject to its rules and regulations, the Federal Commission on Audit shall conduct a pre-audit within a reasonable period on transactions or contracts and projects of paramount importance to economic development upon the request of the head of agency. SECTION 5. The Congress shall enact a Federal Auditing Code that will include the scope, limit, and manner of audit, and the guidelines on the requirements for pre-audit, of the Federal and Regional Governments or any of their subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned and controlled corporations with original charters and their subsidiaries. The Federal Commission on Audit shall promulgate auditing rules in conformity with the Federal Auditing Code. The Federal Commission on Audit shall conduct a pre-audit within a reasonable period on transactions or contracts and projects of paramount importance to economic development upon the request of the head of agency.
E. FEDERAL COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS E. FEDERAL COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS
SECTION 1. SECTION 1.
(a) There shall be a Federal Commission on Human Rights composed of a Chairperson and four (4) Commissioners who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five (35) years of age, holders of a college degree or its equivalent, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the immediately preceding election. There shall be a Federal Commission on Human Rights composed of a Chairperson and four (4) Commissioners who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, at least thirty-five (35) years of age at the time of their appointment, holders of a college degree or its equivalent, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the immediately preceding election.
(b) The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairperson and two (2) Commissioners shall hold office for seven (7) years and two (2) Commissioners shall hold office for five (5) years. The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairperson and two (2) Commissioners shall hold office for seven (7) years and two (2) Commissioners shall hold office for five (5) years.
SECTION 2. The Federal Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and duties: SECTION 2. The Federal Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and duties:
(a) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights violations involving, but not limited to, civil, political, socio-economic, cultural and environmental rights, committed by state and non-state actors; (a) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights violations involving, but not limited to, civil, political, socio-economic, cultural, and environmental rights, committed by state and non-state actors;
(b) Recommend the prosecution of state and non-state actors to the proper authority for violation of human rights; (b) Recommend the prosecution of state and non-state actors to the proper authority for violation of human rights;
(c) Exercise the power to cite in contempt in accordance with the Rules of Court; (c) Exercise the power to cite in contempt in accordance with the Rules of Court;
(d) Provide preventive measures and legal assistance to all victims whose human rights have been violated or need protection and in appropriate cases, conduct case build-up for prosecution of criminal offenses; (d) Provide preventive measures and legal assistance to all victims whose human rights have been violated or who may need protection and, in appropriate cases, conduct case build-up for prosecution of criminal offenses;
(e) Exercise visitorial powers over jails, prisons, or analogous detention facilities, Provided, that in case of detention facilities inside military camps, the visitorial power can be exercised only upon the issuance of a court order allowing such; (e) Exercise visitorial powers over jails, prisons, or analogous detention facilities: Provided, that in case of detention facilities inside military camps, the visitorial power can be exercised only upon the issuance of a court order allowing such;
(f) Establish a continuing program on research, education, and information to enhance respect for the primacy of human rights in government and society; (f) Establish a continuing program on research, education, and information to enhance respect for the primacy of human rights in government and society;
(g) Recommend to Congress legal and effective measures for the protection and promotion of human rights of all persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and to provide for remedies to victims of violations of human rights and their families; (g) Recommend to Congress legal and effective measures for the protection and promotion of human rights of all persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and to provide for remedies to victims of violations of human rights and their families;
(h) Monitor the compliance by the Federal and Federated Regional Governments with treaty obligations on human rights; (h) Monitor the compliance by the Federal and Regional Governments with treaty obligations on human rights;
(i) Grant immunity and establish a witness protection program for persons whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other evidence is necessary to determine the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its authority; (i) Grant immunity and establish a witness protection program for persons whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other evidence is necessary to determine the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its authority;
(j) Coordinate with any department, bureau, office, or agency in the performance of its functions; (j) Coordinate with the Federal and Regional Governments or any of their subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations, in the performance of its functions; and
(k) Coordinate with and render capacity-building assistance to all human rights agencies. (k) Coordinate with, and render capacity-building assistance to, all human rights agencies.
SECTION 3. A human rights violation is any violation of the rights guaranteed by this Constitution and by international human rights covenants and treaties to which the Philippines is a party, perpetrated by the state or by non-state actors. SECTION 3. A human rights violation is any violation of the rights guaranteed by the Constitution and by international human rights covenants and treaties to which the Philippines is a party, perpetrated by the State or non-state actors.
F. FEDERAL OMBUDSMAN COMMISSION
SECTION 1. There shall be an Independent Federal Ombudsman Commission, composed of the Chief Ombudsman as Chairperson, and Four Associate Ombudsman representing Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao and the Federal Capital. In addition, an overall Deputy Ombudsman shall be appointed to assist the Ombudsman in general administration matters, a Deputy Ombudsman for the military establishment and the uniformed law enforcement offices, and at least one Deputy Ombudsman for each of the Federated Regions. SECTION 1. There shall be an independent Federal Ombudsman Commission, composed of the Chief Ombudsman as Chairperson, and Four (4) Associate Ombudsmen representing Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao, and the Metropolitan Manila Region. There shall be an overall Deputy Ombudsman to assist the Chief Ombudsman in general administration matters, a Deputy Ombudsman for the military establishment and the uniformed law enforcement offices, and at least one (1) Deputy Ombudsman for each Federated Region.
SECTION 2. The Chief Ombudsman, the Associate Ombudsman, the Deputies and the Special Prosecutor shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their appointment, at least forty-five (45) years old, of recognized probity and independence, and members of the Philippine Bar, and must not have been candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election. The Chief Ombudsman, the Associate Ombudsman and the Special Prosecutor must have, for fifteen (15) years or more, been a judge or engaged in the active practice of law in the Philippines. SECTION 2. The Chief Ombudsman, the Associate Ombudsmen, the Deputies, and the Special Prosecutor shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, at least forty-five (45) years old at the time of their appointment, of recognized probity, independence, competence, and integrity, members of the Philippine Bar, and must not have been candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election. The Chief Ombudsman, the Associate Ombudsmen, the Deputies, and the Special Prosecutor must have been a judge or engaged in the active practice of law in the Philippines for at least fifteen (15) years.
SECTION 3. The existing Office of the Special Prosecutor shall continue to function and exercise its powers as now or hereafter may be provided by law, and shall be under the control and supervision of the Federal Ombudsman Commission. SECTION 3. The existing Office of the Special Prosecutor shall continue to function and exercise its powers as now or hereafter may be provided by law, and shall be under the control and supervision of the Federal Ombudsman Commission.
SECTION 4. The Federal Chief Ombudsman, the Associate Ombudsman, the Deputies and the Special Prosecutor shall serve for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of the Associate Ombudsman first appointed, two shall hold office for seven (7) years and two for five (5) years, without reappointment. They shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election immediately succeeding their cessation from office. Neither are they allowed to appear nor to practice before the Federal Ombudsman Commission within two (2) years following their cessation from office. SECTION 4. The Chief Ombudsman, the Associate Ombudsmen, the Deputies, and the Special Prosecutor shall serve for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. They shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election immediately succeeding their cessation from office. Neither are they allowed to appear, nor to practice before, the Federal Ombudsman Commission within two (2) years following their cessation from office. Of those first appointed, the Chief Ombudsman and two (2) Associates shall hold office for seven (7) years and two (2) Associates for five (5) years, without reappointment.
SECTION 5. The Federal Chief Ombudsman and his Deputies, including the Special Prosecutor, shall not during their tenure, hold any other office or employment. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporation or their subsidiaries. SECTION 5. The Chief Ombudsman, the Associate Ombudsmen, the Deputies, and the Special Prosecutor, shall not, during their tenure, hold any other office or employment. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly, practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or in any special privilege granted by the government or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries.
SECTION 6. The Federal Ombudsman Commission, as an Anti-Corruption Commission and protector of the people, shall act promptly on complaints filed in any form or manner against public officials or employees of the Governments, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, and shall, in appropriate cases, notify the complainants of the action taken and the result thereof. SECTION 6. The Federal Ombudsman Commission, as protector of the people, shall act promptly on complaints filed in any form or manner against public officials or employees of the Federal and Regional Governments, or any of their subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations with or without original charters and their subsidiaries, and shall, in appropriate cases, notify the complainants of the action taken and its result.

SECTION 7. The Federal Ombudsman Commission shall be the only authorized body to prosecute graft and corruption at the federal and regional levels of government and other offenses committed in relation to their office.

The Office of the Special Prosecutor shall be responsible for the prosecution of all graft and corruption cases as herein provided.

SECTION 7. The Federal Ombudsman Commission shall decide, by a majority vote of all its members, any case or matter brought before it within one hundred twenty (120) days from the date of its filing. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon filing the last pleading, brief or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law, any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Federal Administrative Court by appeal or certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty (30) days from receipt of a copy thereof. SECTION 8. The Federal Ombudsman Commission shall decide, by a majority vote of all its members, any case or matter brought before it within one hundred twenty (120) days from the date of its filing. Unless otherwise provided by the Constitution or by law, any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Federal Administrative Court on appeal or certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty (30) days from its receipt.
SECTION 8. The Federal Ombudsman Commission shall have the following powers, functions and duties: SECTION 9. The Federal Ombudsman Commission shall have the following powers, functions, and duties:
(a) Investigate and prosecute on its own or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any public officer or employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, unjust, improper or inefficient; (a) Investigate and prosecute on its own or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any public officer or employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, unjust, improper, or inefficient;
(b) Exercise disciplinary authority over all elective and appointive officials of the Government and its subdivisions, instrumentalities and agencies, including members of the cabinet, local government, government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries, in accordance with paragraph (a), Section 9 hereof, except over officials who may be removed by impeachment; provided that when the penalty imposed is removal from the service, the evidence required shall be clear and convincing; (b) Exercise disciplinary authority over all elective and appointive officials of the Federal and Regional Governments and their subdivisions, agencies instrumentalities, including members of the cabinet, local government, government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries, in accordance with paragraph (a), Section 9 hereof, except over officials who may be removed by impeachment; Provided, that when the penalty imposed is removal from the service or higher, the evidence required shall be clear and convincing.
(c) Direct, upon complaint or at its own instance, any officer or employee of the Government, or of any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, as well as any government-owned or controlled corporations with original charter, to perform and expedite any act or duty required by law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties; (c) Direct, upon complaint or at its own instance, any officer or employee of the Federal and Regional Governments, or any of their subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities, as well as any government-owned or controlled corporation with original charter, to perform and expedite any act or duty required by law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties;
(d) Take appropriate action against a public officer or employee at fault or who neglect to perform an act or discharge a duty required by law, and order his removal, suspension, demotion, fine, censure, or prosecution, and ensure compliance therewith; (d) Take appropriate action against a public officer or employee at fault or who neglects to perform an act or discharge a duty required by law, and order his removal, suspension, demotion, fine, censure, or prosecution, and ensure compliance therewith;
(e) Direct the officer concerned, in any appropriate case, and subject to such limitations as it may provide in its rules of procedure, to furnish it with copies of documents relating to contracts or transactions entered into by his office involving the disbursement or use of public funds or properties, and report any irregularity to the Commission on Audit for appropriate action; (e) Direct the officer concerned, in any appropriate case, and subject to such limitations as it may provide in its rules of procedure, to furnish it with copies of documents relating to contracts or transactions entered into by his office involving the disbursement or use of public funds or properties and report any irregularity to the Commission on Audit for appropriate action;
(f) Request any government agency for assistance and information necessary in the discharge of its responsibilities, and to examine, if necessary, pertinent records and documents; (f) Request any government agency for assistance and information necessary in the discharge of its responsibilities, and to examine, if necessary, pertinent records and documents;
(g) Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due prudence; (g) Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due prudence;
(h) Determine the causes of inefficiency, red tape, mismanagement, fraud, and corruption in the Government, and make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency; (h) Determine the causes of inefficiency, red tape, mismanagement, fraud, and corruption in the government, and make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency;
(i) Punish for contempt in accordance with the Rules of Court and under the same procedure and with the same penalties provided; and (i) Punish for contempt in accordance with the Rules of Court and under the same procedure and with the same penalties provided; and
(j) Promulgate its rules of procedure and exercise such other powers or perform such other functions or duties at the law may provide. The Federal Ombudsman Commission shall give priority to complaints filed against high ranking government officials such as presidential appointees and/or those occupying supervisory positions, complaints involving grave offenses, as well as complaints involving large sums of money and/or properties. (j) Promulgate its rules of procedure and exercise such other powers or perform such other functions or duties at the law may provide. The Federal Ombudsman Commission shall give priority to complaints filed against high- ranking elective and appointive officials, complaints involving grave offenses, and complaints involving large sums of money or properties.
SECTION 9. SECTION 10.
(a) The Federal Ombudsman Commission may preventively suspend any officer or employee under his authority pending an investigation if in his judgment the evidence of guilt is strong and (1) the charge against such officer involves dishonesty, oppression or gross misconduct or neglect in the performance of duty; (2) the charges would warrant removal from the service; or (3) the respondent’s continued stay in office may prejudice the case filed against him. The Federal Ombudsman Commission may preventively suspend any officer or employee under its authority pending an investigation if in its judgment the evidence of guilt is strong and (1) the charge against such officer involves dishonesty, oppression, gross misconduct, or neglect in the performance of duty, (2) the charges would warrant removal from the service, or (3) the continued stay of the respondent in office may prejudice the case filed against him.
(b) The preventive suspension shall continue until the investigation is terminated by the Federal Ombudsman Commission but in no case shall it exceed six (6) months, except when the delay in the disposition of the case is due to the fault, negligence or upon the petition of the respondent, in which case the period of such delay shall not be counted in computing the period of preventive suspension herein provided. The preventive suspension shall continue until the investigation is terminated by the Federal Ombudsman Commission but in no case shall it exceed six (6) months, except when the delay in the disposition of the case is due to the fault, negligence, or upon the petition of the respondent, in which case, the period of such delay shall not be counted in computing the period of preventive suspension herein provided.
SECTION 10. SECTION 11.
(a) No writ of injunction shall be issued by any court to delay an investigation being conducted by the Federal Ombudsman Commission, unless there is a prima facie evidence that the subject matter of the investigation is outside the jurisdiction of the Office of the Federal Ombudsman Commission. No writ of injunction shall be issued by any court to delay an investigation being conducted by the Federal Ombudsman Commission, unless there is a prima facie evidence that the subject matter of the investigation is outside the jurisdiction of the Federal Ombudsman Commission.
(b) The Federal Administrative Court shall hear through appeal or certiorari any appeal or application for remedy against the decision or findings of the Federal Ombudsman Commission. The Federal Administrative Court shall hear, on appeal or certiorari, any appeal or application for remedy against the decision or findings of the Federal Ombudsman Commission.
SECTION 11. SECTION 12.
(a) In accordance with the law and the Rules of Court, the Federal Ombudsman Commission may grant immunity from criminal prosecution to any person whose possession and production of documents or other evidence may be necessary to determine the truth in any of its hearing, inquiry or proceeding. In accordance with the law and the Rules of Court, the Federal Ombudsman Commission may grant immunity from criminal prosecution to any person whose possession and production of documents or other evidence may be necessary to determine the truth in any of its hearing, inquiry, or proceedings.
(b) The immunity granted shall not exempt the witness from criminal prosecution for perjury or false testimony, nor shall he be exempt from demotion or removal from office. The immunity granted shall not exempt the witness from criminal prosecution for perjury or false testimony, nor shall he be exempt from demotion or removal from office.
G. FEDERAL COMPETITION COMMISSION G. FEDERAL COMPETITION COMMISSION
SECTION 1. There shall be an independent Federal Competition Commission. SECTION 1. There shall be an independent Federal Competition Commission.
SECTION 2. SECTION 2.
(a) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairperson and four Commissioners who must be natural born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their appointment at least thirty-five (35) years of age, of good moral character, of recognized probity and independence, and must have distinguished themselves professionally in public, civic or academic service in any of the following fields: economics, law, finance, commerce or engineering. They must have been in the active practice of their professions for at least ten (10) years, and must not have been candidates for any elective national or local office in the immediately preceding elections, whether regular or special. However, at least one shall be a member of the Philippine Bar with at least ten (10) years of experience in the active practice of law, and at least one shall be an economist. The Commission shall be composed of a Chairperson and four (4) Commissioners who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, at least thirty-five (35) years of age at the time of their appointment, of good moral character, of recognized probity and independence, and must have distinguished themselves professionally in public, civic, or academic service in any of the following fields: economics, law, finance, commerce, or engineering. They must have been in the active practice of their professions for at least ten (10) years, and must not have been candidates for any elective national or local office in the immediately preceding election, whether regular or special. However, at least one (1) shall be a member of the Philippine Bar with at least ten (10) years of experience in the active practice of law, and at least one (1) shall be an economist.
(b) The Chairperson and the Commissioners, who shall be appointed with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, shall be appointed by the President for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of the first set of appointees, the Chairperson shall hold office for seven (7) years, and of the first four Commissioners, two shall hold office for a term of seven (7) years and two for a term of five (5) years. The Chairperson and the Commissioners, who shall be appointed with the confirmation of the Commission on Appointments, shall be appointed by the President for a term of seven (7) years without reappointment. Of the first set of appointees, the Chairperson and two (2) Commissioners shall hold office for a term of seven (7) years and two (2) Commissioners for a term of five (5) years.
SECTION 3. The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office. They shall not be allowed to personally appear or practice as counsel or agent on any matter pending before the Commission for two (2) years following their cessation from office. SECTION 3. The Chairperson and the Commissioners shall avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office. They shall not be allowed to personally appear or practice as counsel or agent on any matter pending before the Commission for two (2) years following their cessation from office.
SECTION 4. The Commission shall enforce and implement of all laws and regulations on competition. It shall exercise the following powers and duties: SECTION 4. The Commission shall enforce and implement all laws and regulations on competition. It shall exercise the following powers and duties:
(a) Conduct inquiry, investigate, hear and decide cases involving any violation of competition laws motu proprio or upon receipt of a verified complaint from an interested party or upon referral by the concerned regulatory agency, and institute the appropriate civil or criminal proceedings; (a) Conduct inquiry, investigate, hear, and decide cases involving any violation of competition laws upon receipt of a verified complaint, or at their own instance, or upon referral by the concerned regulatory agency, and institute the appropriate civil or criminal proceedings;
(b) Review proposed mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, and other business combinations that substantially lessen competition in the relevant market; (b) Review proposed mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, and other business combinations that substantially lessen competition in the relevant market;
(c) Monitor and undertake consultation with stakeholders and affected agencies for the purpose of understanding market behavior; (c) Monitor and undertake consultation with stakeholders and affected agencies for the purpose of understanding market behavior;
(d) After notice and hearing and upon finding based on substantial evidence that an entity has entered into an anti-competitive agreement or has abused its dominant position, stop or redress the same by applying remedies such as, but not limited to, issuance of injunctions, requirement of divestment, and disgorgement of excess profits; (d) After notice and hearing and upon finding based on substantial evidence that an entity has entered into an anti-competitive agreement or has abused its dominant position, stop or redress the same by applying remedies such as, but not limited to, issuance of injunctions, requirement of divestment, and disgorgement of excess profits;
(e) Conduct administrative proceedings, impose sanctions, fines or penalties for any non-compliance with or breach of competition laws and regulations, and punish for contempt as provided by law; (e) Conduct administrative proceedings, impose sanctions, fines, or penalties for any non- compliance with or breach of competition laws and regulations, and punish for contempt as provided by law;
(f) Issue subpoena duces tecum and subpoena ad testificandum, require the production of books, records, or other documents or data which relate to any matter relevant to the investigation and personal appearance before the Commission, summon witnesses, administer oaths, and issue interim orders, such as show cause orders and cease and desist orders after due notice and hearing as provided by law; (f) Issue subpoena duces tecum and subpoena ad testificandum, require the production of books, records, or other documents or data which relate to any matter relevant to the investigation and personal appearance before the Commission, summon witnesses, administer oaths, and issue interim orders, such as show cause orders and cease and desist orders after due notice and hearing as provided by law;
(g) Upon order of the court, undertake inspections of business premises and other offices, land and vehicles, as used by the entity, where it reasonably suspects that relevant books, tax records, or other documents which relate to any matter relevant to the investigation are kept in order to prevent the removal, concealment, tampering with, or destruction of the books, records, or other documents; (g) Upon order of the court, undertake inspections of business premises and other offices, land, and vehicles, as used by the entity, where it reasonably suspects that relevant books, tax records, or other documents which relate to any matter relevant to the investigation are kept in order to prevent the removal, concealment, tampering with, or destruction of the books, records, or other documents;
(h) Issue adjustment or divestiture orders including orders for corporate reorganization or divestment in the manner and under such terms and conditions as provided by law; (h) Issue adjustment or divestiture orders, including orders for corporate reorganization or divestment, in the manner and under such terms and conditions as provided by law;
(i) Deputize any and all enforcement agencies of the government or seek the aid and support of any private institution, corporation, entity or association, in the implementation of its orders and directives; (i) Deputize any and all enforcement agencies of the government or seek the aid and support of any private institution, corporation, entity, or association in the implementation of its orders and directives;
(j) Monitor compliance by the person or entities concerned with the cease and desist order or consent judgment; (j) Monitor compliance by the person or entities concerned with the cease and desist order or consent judgment;
(k) Issue advisory opinions and guidelines on competition matters for the effective enforcement of competition laws and submit annual and special reports to Congress, including proposed legislation for the regulation of commerce, trade, or industry; (k) Issue advisory opinions and guidelines on competition matters for the effective enforcement of competition laws and submit annual and special reports to Congress, including proposed legislation for the regulation of commerce, trade, or industry;
(l) Monitor and analyze the practice of competition in markets that affect the Philippine economy; implement and oversee measures to promote transparency and accountability; and ensure that prohibitions and requirements of competition laws are adhered to; (m)Conduct, publish, and disseminate studies and reports on anti-competitive conduct and agreements to inform and guide the industry and consumers; (l) Monitor and analyze the practice of competition in markets that affect the Philippine economy, implement and oversee measures to promote transparency and accountability, and ensure that prohibitions and requirements of competition laws are adhered to;
(m) Conduct, publish, and disseminate studies and reports on anti-competitive conduct and agreements to inform and guide the industry and consumers;
(n) Act as the official representative of the Philippine government in international competition matters, and promote capacity building and the sharing of best practices with other competition-related bodies; (n) Act as the official representative of the Philippine government in international competition matters, and promote capacity building and the sharing of best practices with other competition- related bodies;
(o) Advocate pro-competitive policies of the government by: (1) reviewing economic and administrative regulations, motu proprio or upon request, as to whether or not they adversely affect relevant market competition, and advising the concerned agencies against such regulations; and (2) advising the Executive Department on the competitive implications of government actions, policies and programs; and (o) Advocate pro-competitive policies of the government by: (1) reviewing economic and administrative regulations, on its own or upon request, as to whether or not they adversely affect relevant market competition, advising the concerned agencies against such regulations; and (2) advising the Executive Department on the competitive implications of government actions, policies and programs; and
(p) Perform such other functions as may be provided by law. (p) Perform such other functions as may be provided by law.
SECTION 5. Any three members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum and the affirmative vote of three members shall be necessary for the adoption of any rule, ruling, order, resolution, decision, or other acts of the Commission. Cases before the Commission shall be decided within one hundred twenty (120) days from filing and its decisions may be elevated to the Federal Administrative Court by appeal or certiorari. The appeal shall not stay the order, ruling or decision sought to be reviewed, unless the Federal Administrative Court directs otherwise. SECTION 5. Any three (3) members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum and the affirmative vote of three (3) members shall be necessary for the adoption of any rule, ruling, order, resolution, decision, or other acts of the Commission. Cases before the Commission shall be decided within one hundred twenty (120) days from filing and its decisions may be elevated to the Federal Administrative Court by appeal or certiorari. The appeal shall not stay the order, ruling, or decision sought to be reviewed, unless the Federal Administrative Court directs otherwise.

Article X
Local Government

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
General Provisions
SECTION 1. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays. There shall be autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as hereinafter provided.
SECTION 2. The territorial and political subdivisions shall enjoy local autonomy.
SECTION 3. The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective mechanisms of recall, initiative, and referendum, allocate among the different local government units their powers, responsibilities, and resources, and provide for the qualifications, election, appointment and removal, term, salaries, powers and functions and duties of local officials, and all other matters relating to the organization and operation of the local units.
SECTION 4. The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local governments. Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities, and cities and municipalities with respect to component barangays shall ensure that the acts of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions.
SECTION 5. Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes, fees, and charges subject to such guidelines and limitations as the Congress may provide, consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy. Such taxes, fees, and charges shall accrue exclusively to the local governments.
SECTION 6. Local government units shall have a just share, as determined by law, in the national taxes which shall be automatically released to them.
SECTION 7. Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the proceeds of the utilization and development of the national wealth within their respective areas, in the manner provided by law, including sharing the same with the inhabitants by way of direct benefits.
SECTION 8. The term of office of elective local officials, except barangay officials, which shall be determined by law, shall be three years and no such official shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.
SECTION 9. Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral representation as may be prescribed by law.
SECTION 10. No province, city, municipality, or barangay may be created, divided, merged, abolished, or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in the Local Government Code and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected.
SECTION 11. The Congress may, by law, create special metropolitan political subdivisions, subject to a plebiscite as set forth in Section 10 hereof. The component cities and municipalities shall retain their basic autonomy and shall be entitled to their own local executives and legislative assemblies. The jurisdiction of the metropolitan authority that will hereby be created shall be limited to basic services requiring coordination.
SECTION 12. Cities that are highly urbanized, as determined by law, and component cities whose charters prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials, shall be independent of the province. The voters of component cities within a province, whose charters contain no such prohibition, shall not be deprived of their right to vote for elective provincial officials.
SECTION 13. Local government units may group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services, and resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them in accordance with law.
SECTION 14. The President shall provide for regional development councils or other similar bodies composed of local government officials, regional heads of departments and other government offices, and representatives from non-governmental organizations within the regions for purposes of administrative decentralization to strengthen the autonomy of the units therein and to accelerate the economic and social growth and development of the units in the region.
Autonomous Region
SECTION 15. There shall be created autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras consisting of provinces, cities, municipalities, and geographical areas sharing common and distinctive historical and cultural heritage, economic and social structures, and other relevant characteristics within the framework of this Constitution and the national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines.
SECTION 16. The President shall exercise general supervision over autonomous regions to ensure that the laws are faithfully executed.
SECTION 17. All powers, functions, and responsibilities not granted by this Constitution or by law to the autonomous regions shall be vested in the National Government.
SECTION 18. The Congress shall enact an organic act for each autonomous region with the assistance and participation of the regional consultative commission composed of representatives appointed by the President from a list of nominees from multisectoral bodies. The organic act shall define the basic structure of government for the region consisting of the executive department and legislative assembly, both of which shall be elective and representative of the constituent political units. The organic acts shall likewise provide for special courts with personal, family, and property law jurisdiction consistent with the provisions of this Constitution and national laws.
The creation of the autonomous region shall be effective when approved by majority of the votes cast by the constituent units in a plebiscite called for the purpose, provided that only provinces, cities, and geographic areas voting favorably in such plebiscite shall be included in the autonomous region.
SECTION 19. The first Congress elected under this Constitution shall, within eighteen months from the time of organization of both Houses, pass the organic acts for the autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras.
SECTION 20. Within its territorial jurisdiction and subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national laws, the organic act of autonomous regions shall provide for legislative powers over:
(1) Administrative organization;
(2) Creation of sources of revenues;
(3) Ancestral domain and natural resources;
(4) Personal, family, and property relations;
(5) Regional urban and rural planning development;
(6) Economic, social, and tourism development;
(7) Educational policies;
(8) Preservation and development of the cultural heritage; and
(9) Such other matters as may be authorized by law for the promotion of the general welfare of the people of the region.
SECTION 21. The preservation of peace and order within the regions shall be the responsibility of the local police agencies which shall be organized, maintained, supervised, and utilized in accordance with applicable laws. The defense and security of the regions shall be the responsibility of the National Government.

Draft Article XI
Federated Regions and the
Autonomous Federated Regions
of Bangsamoro and the Cordilleras

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
Federated Regions, the Bangsamoro, and the Federated Region of the Cordilleras
SECTION 1. The Federal Republic shall consist of sixteen (16) Federated Regions, the Bangsamoro and the Federated Cordillera Region. Their apportioned component units are in the appended Ordinance I of this Constitution. Congress may, by law, create, abolish, merge and divide the Regions and determine their constituent political subdivisions, subject to the ratification by the people in a referendum held for the purpose in the political subdivisions affected. SECTION 1. The Federal Republic shall consist of sixteen (16) Federated Regions, the Bangsamoro and the Federated Region of the Cordilleras. Their apportioned component units are in the appended Ordinance I of the Constitution. Congress may, by law, create, abolish, merge, and divide the Regions and determine their constituent political subdivisions, subject to the ratification by the people in a referendum held for the purpose in the political subdivisions affected.
SECTION 2. All Federated Regions are permanent and indissoluble parts of the Federal Republic of the Philippines. It is prohibited for anyone to advocate, demand for, or support the secession of any Federated Region from the Federal Republic. SECTION 2. All Regions are permanent and indissoluble parts of the Federal Republic of the Philippines. It is prohibited for anyone to advocate, demand for, or support the secession of any Region from the Federal Republic.
SECTION 3. The government of the Federated Region shall consist of the Regional Legislative, the Regional Executive, and the Regional Judiciary. SECTION 3. The government of the Federated Region shall consist of the Regional Legislature, the Regional Executive, and the Regional Judiciary.
A. THE FEDERATED REGIONAL LEGISLATURE
SECTION 4. Except for the Federated Region of the Bangsamoro and the Federated Region of the Cordilleras, the Legislature of each Federated Region shall be known as the Regional Assembly on which the legislative power is vested. SECTION 4. Except for the Bangsamoro and the Federated Region of the Cordilleras, the legislature of each Federated Region shall be known as the Regional Assembly in which the legislative power is vested.
SECTION 5. The Regional Assembly shall be composed of duly elected assembly members, half representing each province, highly urbanized city, and independent chartered city, and half representing political parties through proportional representation. (1) Each province, highly urbanized city, and independent chartered city shall have one representative to be elected by their respective voters. (2) The representatives from the political parties shall be elected by the voters of the region. The four (4) political parties that obtained the highest number of votes shall be entitled to seats in the Assembly in the votes cast in their favor following their closed and fixed list. SECTION 5. The Regional Assembly shall be composed of duly elected members, half of the membership of which shall come from each province, highly urbanized city, and independent chartered city, and half representing political parties through proportional representation.
(a) Each province, highly urbanized city, and independent chartered city shall have one representative to be elected by their respective voters.
(b) The representatives from the political parties shall be elected by the voters of the region. The four (4) political parties that obtained the highest number of votes shall be entitled to seats in the Assembly in proportion to the votes cast in their favor and following their closed list.
SECTION 6. Political parties shall advocate clear principles and programs of regional governance. They shall ensure fair representation of the constituent units of the Federated Regions and promote the interests of the marginalized and underrepresented sectors. Their elected members in the assembly shall advance their party principles and programs. Failure to fulfill these requirements may be ground for the disqualification of the party from participating in elections and discipline of the erring member. SECTION 6. Political parties shall advocate clear principles and programs of regional governance. They shall ensure fair representation of the constituent units of the Federated Regions and promote the interests of the marginalized and underrepresented sectors. Their elected members in the assembly shall advance their party principles and programs. Failure to fulfill these requirements may be ground for the disqualification of the party from participating in elections and discipline of the erring member.
SECTION 7. No person may be a member of the Regional Assembly unless he is a natural-born citizen, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least twenty-five (25) years of age on the day of the election, and domiciled in the Federated Region for at least five (5) years immediately preceding the election. SECTION 7. No person may be a member of the Regional Assembly unless he is a natural- born citizen, a registered voter, a holder of a college degree or its equivalent, at least twenty- five (25) years of age on the day of the election, and domiciled in the Federated Region for at least five (5) years immediately preceding the election.
SECTION 8. They shall serve for a term of four (4) years. Their term shall commence at noon of the 30th of June following their election, unless otherwise provided by regional law. No assembly member shall serve for more than two (2) terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term of which he was elected. SECTION 8. They shall serve for a term of four (4) years. Their term shall commence at noon of the 30th of June following their election, unless otherwise provided by regional law. No assembly member shall serve for more than two (2) terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.
SECTION 9. On the first session following their election, the members of the Regional Assembly shall elect by majority vote from all its members the President Pro-Tempore and the other officers of the Assembly. The Regional Assembly shall adopt its own rules which shall provide for its officers, quorum, conduct of sessions, process of legislation, voting, discipline, privileges and immunities of its members, journal of proceedings, vacancies and matters related to the exercise of the legislative power within the framework of this Constitution. SECTION 9. The Regional Assembly shall elect, on its first session and by a majority vote of all its members, the President Pro-Tempore and other officers of the Assembly. The Regional Assembly shall adopt its own rules which shall provide for its officers, quorum, conduct of sessions, process of legislation, voting, discipline, privileges and immunities of its members, journal of proceedings, vacancies and matters related to the exercise of the legislative power within the framework of the Constitution.
SECTION 10. No bill shall become a Regional Law unless it is passed in accordance with the Assembly rules and signed by the Regional Governor. If the Regional Governor chooses to veto the bill, he shall return it to the Assembly stating the reasons for the veto. The Regional Assembly may override the veto of the Governor by a vote of two-thirds (2/3) of all its members. When the Regional Governor fails to act on a bill within a period of fifteen (15) calendar days, the bill shall be considered in effect as law after the fifteenth day. SECTION 10. No bill shall become a regional law unless it is passed in accordance with the Assembly rules and signed by the Regional Governor. If the Regional Governor chooses to veto the bill, he shall return it to the Assembly stating the reasons for the veto. The Regional Assembly may override the veto of the Governor by a vote of two-thirds (2/3) of all its members. When the Regional Governor fails to act on a bill within a period of fifteen (15) calendar days, the bill shall become a law after the fifteenth day.
SECTION 11. Members of the Regional Assembly shall, upon their assumption to office, make full disclosure of their financial and business interests, including those of their spouses and children. They shall notify the Regional Assembly of any potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of bills or resolutions of which they are authors. Non-compliance shall be subject to disciplinary action by the Regional Assembly in accordance with its Rules and without prejudice to other liabilities as provided by law. SECTION 11. Members of the Regional Assembly shall, upon their assumption to office, make full disclosure of their financial and business interests, including those of their spouses and children. They shall notify the Regional Assembly of any potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of bills or resolutions of which they are authors. Non-compliance shall be subject to disciplinary action by the Regional Assembly in accordance with its rules and without prejudice to other liabilities as provided by law.
SECTION 12. No member of the Regional Assembly shall during their term, engage directly or indirectly, in any business or commercial enterprise where there is conflict of interest with the functions of their office. SECTION 12. No member of the Regional Assembly shall, during their term, engage directly or indirectly, in any business or commercial enterprise where there is conflict of interest with the functions of their office.
SECTION 13. The Regional Assembly, or any of its respective committees, may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. The rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected.
SECTION 14. The Regional Assembly may not increase the appropriations recommended by the Regional Governor for the operation of the Regional Government as specified in the budget. The form, content and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law.
SECTION 13. The records and books of accounts of the Regional Assembly shall be preserved and open to the public in accordance with regional law, and such books shall be audited by the regional audit commission which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each member. SECTION 15. The records and books of accounts of the Regional Assembly shall be preserved and open to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the regional audit commission which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each member.
B. THE REGIONAL EXECUTIVE B. THE REGIONAL EXECUTIVE
SECTION 14. The Regional Executive Power shall be vested in the Regional Governor. There shall be a Regional Vice-Governor who will be the Presiding Officer of the Regional Assembly. The Regional Governor and the Regional Vice-Governor shall be elected as a team. SECTION 16. The Regional Executive Power shall be vested in the Regional Governor. There shall be a Deputy Regional Governor who will be the Presiding Officer of the Regional Assembly. The Regional Governor and the Deputy Regional Governor shall be elected as a team.
SECTION 15. The Regional Governor and the Regional Vice-Governor shall be elected by majority of the Regional Assembly from among its members. The Regional Governor shall have a term of four (4) years, subject to one re-election. The Regional Assembly shall enact a law which shall provide for the succession, vacancies, compensation, and the accountabilities of the Regional Governor and Vice- Governor. SECTION 17.
(a) The Regional Governor and the Deputy Regional Governor shall be elected by majority of the Regional Assembly from among its members.
(b) The Regional Governor and the Deputy Regional Governor shall have a term of four (4) years, subject to one re-election.
(c) The Regional Assembly shall enact a law which shall provide for the accountabilities, compensation, discipline, removal, vacancy, and succession of the Regional Governor and Deputy Regional Governor.
SECTION 16. The Regional Governor shall have the following powers and duties: SECTION 18. The Regional Governor shall have the following powers and duties:
(a) To head the government of the Federated Region and exercise general supervision over its component local governments; (a) To head the government of the region and exercise general supervision over its component local governments;
(b) To execute all federal laws applicable in the region consistent with the Constitution; (b) To faithfully execute all federal laws applicable in the region consistent with the Constitution;
(c) To execute all regional laws; (c) To faithfully execute all regional laws;
(d) To appoint heads of executive departments, agencies, bureaus and offices of the Federated Region or other officers of the regional government owned and controlled corporations or entities with original charters; (d) To appoint heads of executive departments, agencies, bureaus and offices of the region or other officers of the regional government-owned and controlled corporations or entities with original charters;
(e) To appoint other officers and employees in the Regional Government, as may be provided by the Assembly; (e) To appoint other officers and employees in the Regional Government, as may be provided by the Assembly;
(f) To formulate the Regional Expenditure Program of government; (f) To formulate the Expenditure Program of the Federated Region;
(g) To enter into contracts and agreements for the benefit of the region in accordance with regional laws and this Constitution. (g) To enter into contracts and agreements for the benefit of the region in accordance with regional laws and the Constitution; and
(h) To exercise other powers and duties as may be provided by regional law. (h) To exercise other powers and duties as may be provided by regional law.
SECTION 17. The Regional Governor and Vice-Governor shall not during their term, engage directly or indirectly, in any business or commercial enterprise where there is conflict of interest with the functions of their office. SECTION 19. The Regional Governor and Deputy Regional Governor shall not engage, during their term, directly or indirectly in any business or commercial enterprise where there is conflict of interest with the functions of their office.
SECTION 18. In case of calamities or when public order and safety require, the Regional Governor may declare a state of emergency within the Federated Region. SECTION 20. In case of calamities or when public order and safety require, the Regional Governor may declare a state of calamity or emergency within the Federated Region.
SECTION 19. The Regional Governor shall exercise the power to pardon or to commute sentences as well as to remit fines and forfeitures for crimes in violation of regional laws. SECTION 21. The Regional Governor shall exercise the power to pardon or to commute sentences and to remit fines or forfeitures for crimes in violation of regional laws.
C. THE REGIONAL JUDICIARY C. THE REGIONAL JUDICIARY
SECTION 20. The Regional Assembly shall provide for a Regional Supreme Court, Regional Courts of Appeal, Regional Trial Courts in component provinces, cities and municipalities and such Lower Courts and Special Courts, and define their jurisdiction in accordance with the Constitution. SECTION 22. The Regional Assembly shall provide for a Regional Supreme Court, Regional Appellate Court, Regional Trial Courts and such lower courts and special courts, in component provinces, cities, and municipalities, and define their jurisdiction in accordance with the Constitution.
D. BANGSAMORO AND CORDILLERA D. BANGSAMORO AND CORDILLERA
SECTION 21. There is hereby created a Federated Cordillera Region and an Autonomous Region of the Bangsamoro which shall recognize the ethnicity, culture, religion, customs, traditions, language and distinct identities of their people. SECTION 23. There is hereby created the Bangsamoro and the Federated Region of the Cordilleras which shall recognize the ethnicity, culture, religion, customs, traditions, language, and distinct identities of their people.
The Federal Constitution acknowledges the asymmetrical character of the Bangsamoro and the Federated Region of the Cordilleras.
SECTION 24. The creation of the Bangsamoro is in recognition of the justness and legitimacy of the cause of the Bangsamoro people and aspirations to chart their political future through a democratic process that will secure their identity and posterity, and allow for meaningful self-governance within the framework of the Constitution, and the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of the Philippines.
SECTION 22. The Bangsamoro Organic Act is appended as Ordinance II of this Federal Constitution. SECTION 25. The Bangsamoro Organic Act, signed by the President and duly ratified through plebiscite, is appended as Ordinance II of the Federal Constitution.
SECTION 26. Within the framework of the Federal Constitution, the Bangsamoro Parliament may enact necessary and appropriate legislation to complement and implement their Organic Act.
SECTION 23. The Federated Cordillera Region shall be composed of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, the City of Baguio, and the component city of Tabuk. SECTION 27. The Federated Region of the Cordilleras shall be composed of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, the City of Baguio, and the component city of Tabuk.
SECTION 28. The Federated Region of the Cordilleras shall enjoy all powers, duties and privileges of a Federated Region, and such other powers, duties, and privileges, including ancestral domains, ancestral lands, land classification, and matters affecting customary laws and traditions.
The Federated Region of the Cordilleras shall be entitled to seventy-five (75%) percent share of all net revenues in the exploration, development and utilization of natural resources in the region
SECTION 24. There shall be an Organic Act of the Federated Region of Cordilleras which shall be consistent with this Constitution and which shall provide, among others, for the political territory, structure of its government, powers of its constituent units, accountability of its officials, and mechanisms to ensure fair representation of the interests of all its people. The creation, abolition, division or merger of its constituent units shall also be provided in the Organic Act. SECTION 29. There shall be an Organic Act of the Federated Region of the Cordilleras which shall be consistent with the Constitution and which shall provide, among others, for the political territory, structure of its government, powers of its constituent units, accountability of its officials, and mechanisms to ensure fair representation of the interests of all its people. The creation, abolition, division or merger of its constituent units shall also be provided in the Organic Act.
SECTION 30. The structure of the Cordillera Regional Government shall be as follows:
(a) The executive power shall be vested in the Regional Governor who shall be elected at large by direct vote of the registered voters in the Cordilleras.
(b) The legislative power shall be vested in the Regional Assembly, without prejudice to the people of the Cordilleras directly exercising legislative power pursuant to the provisions of initiative and referendum. The Deputy Regional Governor shall be elected at large by direct vote of the registered voters in the Cordilleras and shall be the Presiding Officer of the Regional Assembly.
(c) Each province and city shall elect by direct vote of the registered voters in the constituent unit their representatives to the Regional Assembly. Every chartered city in the Federated Region is entitled to two (2) representatives to the Regional Assembly. Every component city is entitled to one (1) representative. Every province shall be entitled to two (2) representatives. In case there are two (2) legislative districts in the province, each district shall be entitled to one (1) representative.
SECTION 25. The Organic Act of the Cordilleras’ Regional Assembly must be ratified by a majority of the votes cast in all provinces, highly-urbanized cities, and independent component cities, in a plebiscite called for that purpose. SECTION 31. The Organic Act of the Federated Region of the Cordilleras shall be enacted by the Regional Assembly and must be ratified by a majority of the votes cast in all provinces, highly-urbanized cities, and independent component cities, in a plebiscite called for the purpose, and shall be appended as Ordinance III of the Constitution.
SECTION 26. Upon approval of this Constitution and until such time that the Federated Cordillera Region is able to adopt its Organic Act, the Federal Transition Commission shall organize the government of the Federated Cordillera Region. The structure of the regional government shall be as follows:
(a) The executive power shall be vested in the Regional Governor who shall be elected at large by direct vote of the registered voters in the Cordilleras.
(b) The legislative power shall be vested in the Regional Assembly, without prejudice to the people of the Cordilleras directly exercising legislative power pursuant to the provisions of initiative and referendum. The Regional Vice-Governor shall be elected at large by direct vote of the registered voters in the Cordilleras and shall be the Presiding Officer of the Regional Assembly.
(c) Each province and city shall elect by direct vote of the registered voters in the constituent unit their representatives to the Regional Assembly. Every chartered city in the Federated Region is entitled to two (2) representatives to the Regional Assembly. Every component city is entitled to one (1) representative. Every province shall be entitled to two (2) representatives. In case there are two (2) legislative districts in the province, each district shall be entitled to one (1) representative.

Draft Article XII
Distribution of Powers of the Government

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
SECTION 1. The Federal Government shall have exclusive power over: SECTION 1. The Federal Government shall have exclusive power over:
(a) Defense, security of land, sea, and air territory (a) Defense, security of land, sea, and air territory;
(b) Foreign affairs (b) Foreign affairs;
(c) International trade (c) International trade;
(d) Customs and tariffs;
(d) Citizenship, immigration and naturalization (e) Citizenship, immigration and naturalization;
(f) National socio-economic planning;
(e) Monetary policy and federal fiscal policy, banking, currency (g) Monetary policy and federal fiscal policy, banking, currency;
(f) Elections (v) Elections.
(h) Competition and competition regulation bodies;
(g) Inter-regional infrastructure and public utilities, including telecommunications and broadband networks (i) Inter-regional infrastructure and public utilities, including telecommunications and broadband networks;
(h) Federal crimes and justice system (q) Federal crimes and justice system;
(i) Civil, family, property, and commercial laws, except as may be otherwise provided for in this Constitution (s) Civil, family, property, and commercial laws, except as may be otherwise provided for in the Constitution;
(j) Customs and tariffs
(k) Postal service (j) Postal service;
(l) Intellectual property (u) Intellectual property; and
(m) Regulation and licensing of professions (o) Regulation and licensing of professions;
(n) Law and order (r) Law and order;
(o) Prosecution of graft and corruption cases (t) Prosecution of graft and corruption cases;
(p) Competition and competition regulation bodies
(q) Promotion and protection of human rights (l) Promotion and protection of human rights;
(r) National socio-economic planning
(m) Basic education;
(s) Science and technology (n) Science and technology;
(t) Social security benefits (p) Social security benefits;
(u) Time regulation, standards of weights and measures (k) Time regulation, standards of weights and measures;
SECTION 2. Within their regional territory, the Federated Regions shall have exclusive power over: SECTION 2. Within their regional territory, the Federated Region shall have exclusive power over:
(a) Infrastructure, public utilities and public works (e) Infrastructure, public utilities and public works;
(b) Socio-economic development planning (a) Socio-economic development planning;
(c) Parks and recreation (o) Parks and recreation.
(d) Financial administration and management (c) Financial administration and management;
(e) Business permits and licenses (j) Business permits and licenses;
(f) Tourism, investment, and trade development (d) Tourism, investment, and trade development;
(g) Economic zones (f) Economic zones;
(h) Creation of sources of revenue (b) Creation of sources of revenue;
(i) Local government units (i) Local government units;
(j) Municipal waters (k) Municipal waters;
(k) Culture and language development (m) Culture and language development;
(l) Land use and housing (g) Land use and housing;
(m) Sports development (n) Sports development; and
(n) Indigenous peoples’ rights and welfare (l) Indigenous peoples’ rights and welfare;
(o) Justice system (h) Justice system;
SECTION 3. Powers which are given to the exclusion of other political authorities are exclusive powers. Exclusive powers are given to the Federal Government and Federated Regions. SECTION 3. Powers which are given to the exclusion of other political authorities are exclusive powers. Exclusive powers are given to the Federal Government and the Federated Regions.
SECTION 4. Powers not exclusively given to either the Federal Government or to the Federated Regions are shared powers. They fall within the relative competencies of the Federal Government and the Federated Regions and can be exercised jointly or separately. In case of dispute or conflict in their exercise, the federal power shall prevail. SECTION 4. Powers not exclusively given to either the Federal Government or to the Federated Regions are shared powers. They fall within the relative competencies of the Federal Government and the Regional Government and can be exercised jointly or separately. In case of dispute or conflict in their exercise, the federal power shall prevail.
SECTION 5. Powers which are not exclusively given to the Federal Government or to the Federated Regions nor shared by them and not prohibited by the constitution are reserved powers. SECTION 5. Powers which are not exclusively given to the Federal Government or to the Federated Regions nor shared by them and not prohibited by the Constitution are reserved powers.
Reserved powers shall be vested in the Federal Government. Reserved powers shall be vested in the Federal Government.

Draft Article XIII
Fiscal Powers and Financial Administration

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
SECTION 1. The Federal Government shall have the power to levy and collect all taxes, duties, fees, charges, and other impositions except the powers to tax granted to the Federated Regions. SECTION 1. The Federal Government shall have the power to levy and collect all taxes, duties, fees, charges, and other impositions except the power to tax granted to the Federated Regions.
SECTION 2. The Federated Regions shall have the power to levy and collect the following taxes, licenses and fees: SECTION 2. The Federated Regions shall have the power to levy and collect the following taxes, licenses and fees:
(a) Documentary Stamp Tax (d) Documentary Stamp Tax;
(b) Donor’s Tax (c) Donor’s Tax;
(c) Estate Tax (b) Estate Tax;
(d) Real Property Tax (a) Real Property Tax;
(e) Professional Tax (e) Professional Tax;
(f) Franchise Tax (f) Franchise Tax;
(g) Games and Amusement Tax (g) Games and Amusement Tax;
(h) Transport Franchise Fees (k) Transport Franchise Fees; and
(i) Road Users Tax;
(i) Vehicle Registration Fees including Road Users Tax (j) Vehicle Registration Fees;
(j) Environmental Tax, Pollution Tax, and similar Pigouvian Taxes (h) Environmental Tax, Pollution Tax, and similar taxes;
(k) Local taxes and other taxes which may be granted by federal law (l) Local taxes and other taxes which may be granted by federal law.
SECTION 3. The Federated Regions shall be given a share of not less than fifty percent (50%) of all the collected taxes on income, excise, VAT, and customs duties, which shall be equally divided among them and automatically released. SECTION 3. The Federal Government and the Federated Regions shall ensure that taxation shall be uniform, equitable, and progressive. No double taxation shall be allowed.
SECTION 4. There shall be an Equalization Fund which shall not be less than three percent (3%) of the Annual General Appropriations Act. The Fund shall be distributed based on the needs of each region, with priority to those that require support to achieve financial viability and economic sustainability as determined by the Federal Intergovernmental Commission. SECTION 4. The Federated Regions shall be given a share of not less than fifty percent (50%) of all the collected income taxes, excise taxes, value-added tax, and customs duties, which shall be equally divided among them and automatically released.
SECTION 5. The Federal Congress, through the Annual General Appropriations Act, may provide further finances for the Regions to effectively and efficiently deliver government services to their constituents. SECTION 5. There shall be an Equalization Fund which shall not be less than three percent (3%) of the annual General Appropriations Act. The Fund shall be distributed based on the needs of each region, with priority to those that require support to achieve financial viability and economic sustainability as determined by the Federal Intergovernmental Commission.
SECTION 6. The Federated Regions shall be entitled to fifty percent (50%) of all net revenues derived from the exploration, development, and utilization of all natural resources within their territory. SECTION 6. The Congress, through the annual General Appropriations Act, may provide additional finances for the regions to effectively and efficiently deliver government services to their constituents.
SECTION 7. The Federated Regions shall be entitled to fifty percent (50%) of all net revenues derived from the exploration, development, and utilization of all natural resources within their territory.
FEDERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMISSION
SECTION 7. A Federal Intergovernmental Commission is hereby created composed of the Chairman, who shall be appointed by the President, two members from the House of Representatives, two members from the Senate, and four members, appointed by the Council of Regional Governors, and the Secretaries of the Department of Budget and Management and Department of Finance. SECTION 8. A Federal Intergovernmental Commission is hereby created composed of the Chairman and fourteen (14) members. The Chairman and two (2) members shall be appointed by the President, two (2) members from the House of Representatives, two (2) members from the Senate, four (4) members appointed by the Council of Regional Governors, one (1) from the Bangsamoro to be appointed by their Regional Assembly, one (1) from the Federated Region of the Cordilleras to be appointed by the Bangsamoro Parliament, and the Secretaries of the Department of Budget and Management and Department of Finance.
The four regular members to be appointed by the Council of Regional Governors should be experts in law, economy, governance and public finance. The four (4) regular members to be appointed by the Council of Regional Governors should be experts in law, economy, governance, and public finance.
SECTION 8. The Federal Intergovernmental Commission shall have the following powers and duties: SECTION 9. The Federal Intergovernmental Commission shall have the following powers and duties:
(a) To administer the equalization fund and assist the weak Federated Regions attain economic viability and sustainability. (a) To administer the Equalization Fund and assist the Federated Regions in need in order to attain economic viability and sustainability;
(b) To formulate programs and policies in regard to grants-in-aid and fund transfers that will address the specific economic needs of the regions. (b) To formulate programs and policies in regard to grants-in-aid and fund transfers that will address the specific economic needs of the regions;
(c) To ascertain the effectiveness and efficiency of the fiscal administration and management of the regional governments. (c) To ascertain the effectiveness and efficiency of the fiscal administration and management of the Regional Governments;
(d) To assess the sufficiency of the regional governments revenue raising in relation to their expenditures in order to determine and reduce causes of financial imbalance. (d) To assess the sufficiency of the Regional Governments in raising revenues to determine and reduce causes of financial imbalance;
(e) To promote friendly and cooperative relationship among the regions through the use of conciliation and mediation practices in the resolution of their disputes. (e) To promote friendly and cooperative relationship among the regions through the use of conciliation and mediation practices in the resolution of their disputes;
(f) To provide for a system of equitable allocation of resources that will enable the people to achieve the goals of establishing a Federal Republic in accordance with this Constitution. (f) To provide for a system of equitable allocation of resources that will enable the people to achieve the goals of establishing a Federal Republic in accordance with the Constitution;
(g) To recommend to Congress the passage of laws to support the foregoing powers. (g) To recommend to Congress the passage of laws to support the foregoing powers; and
(h) To promulgate its own rules. (h) To promulgate its own rules.
SECTION 10. The Council of Regional Governors shall have the following powers and duties: SECTION 10. There shall be a Council of Regional Governors composed of all the elected Regional Governors, including the Regional Governor of the Federated Region of the Cordilleras and the Bangsamoro.
The Council shall promulgate its rules and elect its officers.
SECTION 11. The Council of Regional Governors shall have the following powers and duties:
(a) To designate their representatives to the Federal Intergovernmental Commission; (a) To appoint their representatives to the Federal Intergovernmental Commission;
(b) To ensure that their regional development plan is aligned with the federal policies and programs; (b) To ensure that their regional development plan is aligned with the federal policies and programs;
(c) To conciliate and mediate interregional and intraregional disputes; (c) To conciliate and mediate interregional disputes; and
(d) To recommend enactment of laws to the Federal Congress for the economic development and fiscal sustainability of the regions. (d) To recommend the enactment of laws to the Congress for the economic development and fiscal sustainability of the regions.

Accountability of Public Officers

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article XI

Article XIV

Article XIV

SECTION 1. Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees must at all times be accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives. SECTION 1. Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees must at all times be accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives. SECTION 1. Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees must at all times be accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives.
SECTION 2. The President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Supreme Court, the Members of the Constitutional Commissions, and the Ombudsman may be removed from office, on impeachment for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of public trust. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as provided by law, but not by impeachment. SECTION 2. The President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Federal Supreme Court, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Administrative Court, Federal Electoral Court, and the Members of the Constitutional Commissions, may be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of public trust. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as provided by law but not by impeachment. SECTION 2. The President, the Vice President, the Members of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court, and the Members of the Constitutional Commissions may be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of public trust. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as provided by law, but not by impeachment.
SECTION 3. SECTION 3. There shall be a Joint Impeachment Committee to be created by Congress. SECTION 3. There shall be a Joint Impeachment Committee to be created by the Congress.
(1) The House of Representatives shall have the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment.

(a) Upon its convening, the Congress shall constitute a Joint Impeachment Committee to be composed of the President of the Senate and twelve Members from each house.

The Senate President shall act as its Presiding Officer and shall not vote except to break a tie.

(a) Upon its convening, the Congress shall constitute a Joint Impeachment Committee to be composed of the President of the Senate and twelve (12) Members from each House.

The Senate President shall act as its Presiding Officer but shall not vote except to break a tie.

(b) The Members of the Committee shall be elected by each house on the basis of proportional representation of the political parties in each house. (b) The Members of the Committee shall be elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation of the political parties in each House.
(c) The Committee shall be organized in accordance with the rules promulgated by each House. The Committee shall promulgate its own rules and procedures. (c) The Committee shall be organized in accordance with the rules promulgated by each House. The Committee shall promulgate its own rules and procedures.
(d) Any impeachment complaint shall be filed directly with the Committee, which shall determine whether the complaint is sufficient in form and substance. (d) Any impeachment complaint shall be filed directly with the Committee, which shall determine whether the complaint is sufficient in form and substance.
(e) Upon finding that the complaint is sufficient in form and substance, the Committee shall determine the existence of probable cause. (e) Upon finding that the complaint is sufficient in form and substance, the Committee shall determine the existence of probable cause.
(f) If by majority vote, the Committee finds probable cause, it shall issue an indictment resolution together with the Articles of Impeachment and file it before the Federal Constitutional Court or the Federal Administrative Court, as the case may be. (f) If by majority vote, the Committee finds probable cause, it shall issue an indictment resolution together with the Articles of Impeachment and file them before the Federal Constitutional Court or the Federal Administrative Court, as the case may be.
(2) A verified complaint for impeachment may be filed by any Member of the House of Representatives or by any citizen upon a resolution of endorsement by any Member thereof, which shall be included in the Order of Business within ten session days, and referred to the proper Committee within three session days thereafter. The Committee, after hearing, and by a majority vote of all its Members, shall submit its report to the House within sixty session days from such referral, together with the corresponding resolution. The resolution shall be calendared for consideration by the House within ten session days from receipt thereof.
(3) A vote of at least one-third of all the Members of the House shall be necessary either to affirm a favorable resolution with the Articles of Impeachment of the Committee, or override its contrary resolution. The vote of each Member shall be recorded.
(4) In case the verified complaint or resolution of impeachment is filed by at least one-third of all the Members of the House, the same shall constitute the Articles of Impeachment, and trial by the Senate shall forthwith proceed.
(5) No impeachment proceedings shall be initiated against the same official more than once within a period of one year.
(6) The Senate shall have the sole power to try and decide all cases of impeachment. When sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the Philippines is on trial, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside, but shall not vote. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate.
(7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from office and disqualification to hold any office under the Republic of the Philippines, but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to prosecution, trial, and punishment according to law.
(8) The Congress shall promulgate its rules on impeachment to effectively carry out the purpose of this section.
SECTION 4. The present anti-graft court known as the Sandiganbayan shall continue to function and exercise its jurisdiction as now or hereafter may be provided by law.
SECTION 5. There is hereby created the independent Office of the Ombudsman, composed of the Ombudsman to be known as Tanodbayan, one overall Deputy and at least one Deputy each for Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. A separate Deputy for the military establishment may likewise be appointed. Superseded by
Federal Ombudsman Commission
SECTION 6. The officials and employees of the Office of the Ombudsman, other than the Deputies, shall be appointed by the Ombudsman according to the Civil Service Law.
SECTION 7. The existing Tanodbayan shall hereafter be known as the Office of the Special Prosecutor. It shall continue to function and exercise its powers as now or hereafter may be provided by law, except those conferred on the Office of the Ombudsman created under this Constitution.
SECTION 8. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their appointment, at least forty years old, of recognized probity and independence, and members of the Philippine Bar, and must not have been candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election. The Ombudsman must have for ten years or more been a judge or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.
During their tenure, they shall be subject to the same disqualifications and prohibitions as provided for in Section 2 of Article IX-A of this Constitution.
SECTION 9. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least six nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council, and from a list of three nominees for every vacancy thereafter. Such appointments shall require no confirmation. All vacancies shall be filled within three months after they occur.
SECTION 10. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall have the rank of Chairman and Members, respectively, of the Constitutional Commissions, and they shall receive the same salary, which shall not be decreased during their term of office.
SECTION 11. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall serve for a term of seven years without reappointment. They shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election immediately succeeding their cessation from office.
SECTION 12. The Ombudsman and his Deputies, as protectors of the people, shall act promptly on complaints filed in any form or manner against public officials or employees of the Government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and shall, in appropriate cases, notify the complainants of the action taken and the result thereof.
SECTION 13. The Office of the Ombudsman shall have the following powers, functions, and duties:
(1) Investigate on its own, or on complaint by any person, any act or omission of any public official, employee, office or agency, when such act or omission appears to be illegal, unjust, improper, or inefficient.
(2) Direct, upon complaint or at its own instance, any public official or employee of the Government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, as well as of any government- owned or controlled corporation with original charter, to perform and expedite any act or duty required by law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties.
(3) Direct the officer concerned to take appropriate action against a public official or employee at fault, and recommend his removal, suspension, demotion, fine, censure, or prosecution, and ensure compliance therewith.
(4) Direct the officer concerned, in any appropriate case, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law, to furnish it with copies of documents relating to contracts or transactions entered into by his office involving the disbursement or use of public funds or properties, and report any irregularity to the Commission on Audit for appropriate action.
(5) Request any government agency for assistance and information necessary in the discharge of its responsibilities, and to examine, if necessary, pertinent records and documents.
(6) Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due prudence.
(7) Determine the causes of inefficiency, red tape, mismanagement, fraud, and corruption in the Government and make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency.
(8) Promulgate its rules of procedure and exercise such other powers or perform such functions or duties as may be provided by law.
SECTION 14. The Office of the Ombudsman shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Its approved annual appropriations shall be automatically and regularly released.
SECTION 15. The right of the State to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or employees, from them or from their nominees or transferees, shall not be barred by prescription, laches, or estoppel. SECTION 4. The right of the Federal Republic to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or employees, from them or from their nominees or transferees, shall not be barred by prescription, laches, or estoppel. SECTION 4. The right of the Federal Republic to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or employees, from them or from their nominees or transferees, shall not be barred by prescription, laches, or estoppel.
SECTION 16. No loan, guaranty, or other form of financial accommodation for any business purpose may be granted, directly or indirectly, by any government-owned or controlled bank or financial institution to the President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, and the Constitutional Commissions, the Ombudsman, or to any firm or entity in which they have controlling interest, during their tenure. SECTION 5. No loan, guaranty, or other form of financial accommodation for any business purpose may be granted, directly or indirectly, by any government-owned or controlled bank or financial institution to the President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Federal Supreme Court, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Administrative Court, Federal Electoral Court, and the Constitutional Commissions, or to any firm or entity in which they have controlling interest during their tenure. SECTION 5. No loan, guaranty, or other form of financial accommodation for any business purpose may be granted, directly or indirectly, by any government-owned or controlled bank or financial institution to the President, the Vice President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court, and the Constitutional Commissions, or to any firm or entity in which they have controlling interest during their tenure.
SECTION 17. A public officer or employee shall, upon assumption of office and as often thereafter as may be required by law, submit a declaration under oath of his assets, liabilities, and net worth. In the case of the President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Commissions and other constitutional offices, and officers of the armed forces with general or flag rank, the declaration shall be disclosed to the public in the manner provided by law. SECTION 6. A public officer or employee shall, upon assumption of office and as often thereafter as may be required by law, submit a declaration under oath of his assets, liabilities, and net worth. In the case of the President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Federal Supreme Court, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Administrative Court, Federal Electoral Court, the Constitutional Commissions and other Constitutional Offices, and officers of the armed forces with general or flag rank, the declaration shall be disclosed to the public in the manner provided by law. SECTION 6. A public officer or employee shall, upon assumption of office and as often thereafter as may be required by law, submit a declaration under oath of his assets, liabilities, and net worth. In the case of the President, the Vice President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Administrative Court, the Federal Electoral Court, the Constitutional Commissions and other Constitutional Offices, and officers of the armed forces with general or flag rank, the declaration shall be disclosed to the public in the manner provided by law.
SECTION 18. Public officers and employees owe the State and this Constitution allegiance at all times, and any public officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or acquire the status of an immigrant of another country during his tenure shall be dealt with by law. SECTION 7. Public officers and employees owe the State and this Constitution perpetual allegiance, and any public officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or acquire the status of an immigrant of another country during his tenure shall be dealt with by law. SECTION 7. Public officers and employees owe the State and the Constitution perpetual allegiance, and any public officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or acquire the status of an immigrant of another country during his tenure shall be dealt with by law.

National Economy and Patrimony

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article XII

Article XV

Article XV

SECTION 1. SECTION 1.
SECTION 1. The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities, income, and wealth; a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people; and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all, especially the underprivileged. (a) The Philippine Economic System seeks an equitable distribution of opportunities, income, and wealth through sound and efficient use of human and natural resources. It is directed at a sustainable increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the State for the benefit of all sectors of society, especially the underprivileged. (a) The Philippine Economic System seeks an equitable distribution of opportunities, income, and wealth through sound and efficient use of human and natural resources. It is directed at a sustainable increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the State for the benefit of all sectors of society, especially the underprivileged.
The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. However, the State shall protect Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competition and trade practices. (b) The Federal Republic shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. However, the State shall protect Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competition and trade practices. (b) The Federal Republic shall promote a comprehensive strategy for full employment, through industrialization and sound development of agriculture and service sectors, which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. The State shall at all times protect Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competition and trade practices.
In the pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. (c) In the pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. (c) In the pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership.
SECTION 2. All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated. The exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. The State may directly undertake such activities, or it may enter into co-production, joint venture, or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens, or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. Such agreements may be for a period not exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for not more than twenty-five years, and under such terms and conditions as may be provided by law. In cases of water rights for irrigation, water supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other than the development of water power, beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant. SECTION 2. All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State and shall not be alienated. SECTION 2. All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State and shall not be alienated except lands of public domain provided herein as alienable.
The State shall protect the nation’s marine wealth in its archipelagic waters, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone, and reserve its use and enjoyment exclusively to Filipino citizens.
The Congress may, by law, allow small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipino citizens, as well as cooperative fish farming, with priority to subsistence fishermen and fishworkers in rivers, lakes, bays, and lagoons. The President may enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations involving either technical or financial assistance for large-scale exploration, development, and utilization of minerals, petroleum, and other mineral oils according to the general terms and conditions provided by law, based on real contributions to the economic growth and general welfare of the country. In such agreements, the State shall promote the development and use of local scientific and technical resources.
The President shall notify the Congress of every contract entered into in accordance with this provision, within thirty days from its execution.
SECTION 3. SECTION 3.
SECTION 3. Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, forest or timber, mineral lands, and national parks. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified by law according to the uses which they may be devoted. Alienable lands of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands. (a) Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, forest or timber, mineral lands, and national parks. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified by law according to the uses to which they may be devoted. Alienable lands of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands which may be further classified by law as residential, commercial or industrial. (a) Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, forest or timber, mineral lands, and national parks. Agricultural and reclaimed lands of the public domain may be further classified by law according to the uses to which they may be devoted as residential, commercial, or industrial.
(b) Filipino citizens and private corporations or associations whose shares of stocks are owned or controlled by at least sixty per centum of Filipino citizens, may lease not more than one thousand hectares of alienable lands of the public domain for a period not exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for another twenty-five years. (b) Private corporations or associations whose shares of stocks are owned or controlled at least sixty percent (60%) by Filipino citizens, may lease not more than one thousand hectares of alienable lands of the public domain for a period not exceeding twenty-five (25) years, renewable for another twenty-five (25) years.
Private corporations or associations may not hold such alienable lands of the public domain except by lease, for a period not exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for not more than twenty-five years, and not to exceed one thousand hectares in area. Citizens of the Philippines may lease not more than five hundred hectares, or acquire not more than twelve hectares thereof by purchase, homestead, or grant. (c) Citizens of the Philippines may lease not more than five hundred hectares of alienable lands of the public domain or acquire not more than twelve hectares thereof by purchase, homestead, or grant. (c) Citizens of the Philippines may lease not more than five hundred hectares of alienable lands of the public domain or acquire not more than twelve (12) hectares thereof by purchase, homestead, or grant.
Taking into account the requirements of conservation, ecology, and development, and subject to the requirements of agrarian reform, the Congress shall determine, by law, the size of lands of the public domain which may be acquired, developed, held, or leased and the conditions therefor. (d) Congress may by law change the requirements for lease of alienable lands under this section, considering the general welfare of the people and the necessities of conservation, ecology, development, and agrarian reform. (d) Congress may, by law, change the requirements for lease of alienable lands under this section, considering the general welfare of the people and the necessities of conservation, ecology, development, and agrarian reform.
SECTION 4. SECTION 4.
(a) The exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be a shared power of the Federal and Federated Regions. Within their respective competencies, they may determine the manner and extent of their exploration, development, and utilization. They may directly undertake such activities, or they may enter into co-production, joint venture, or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens, or entities at least sixty per centum of whose voting capital is owned by Filipino citizens. Such agreements may be for a period not exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for another twenty-five years. (a) The exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be a shared power of the Federal and Regional Governments. Within their respective competencies, they may determine the manner and extent of their exploration, development, and utilization. They may directly undertake such activities, or they may enter into co-production, joint venture, or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens, or entities at least sixty percent (60%) of whose voting capital is owned by Filipino citizens. Such agreements may be for a period not exceeding twenty-five (25) years, renewable for another twenty-five (25) years.
See Section 2, above. (b) They may also enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations involving either technical or financial assistance for large-scale exploration, development, and utilization of minerals, petroleum, and other mineral oils. They shall notify their respective legislatures of every contract entered into within thirty days from its execution. (b) They may also enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations involving either technical or financial assistance for large-scale exploration, development, and utilization of minerals, petroleum, and other mineral oils. They shall notify their respective legislatures of every contract entered into within thirty (30) days from its execution.
(c) The small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipinos, especially the marginalized, shall be allowed and protected. (c) The small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipinos, especially the marginalized, shall be allowed and protected.
(d) Congress may by law change the voting capital requirement under this section considering the federal and regional interest of the people. (d) Congress may, by law, change the voting capital requirement under this section considering the federal and regional interest of the people.

SECTION 5. The marine wealth of the nation which lies in its archipelagic waters, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone is reserved exclusively to Filipino citizens.

In cases of water rights for irrigation, water supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other than the development of waterpower, beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant. Cooperative fish farming, with priority to subsistence fishermen and fish workers in rivers, lakes, bays, and lagoons shall be allowed and protected.

SECTION 5. The marine wealth of the nation which lies in its archipelagic waters, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone is reserved exclusively to Filipino citizens.

In cases of water rights for irrigation, water supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other than the development of waterpower, beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant. Cooperative fish farming, with priority to subsistence fishermen and fish workers in rivers, lakes, bays, and lagoons, shall be allowed and protected.

SECTION 6. Save in cases as provided by federal law or in cases of hereditary succession, no private lands shall be transferred or conveyed except to individuals, corporations, or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain.
SECTION 7. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6 of this Article, a natural-born citizen of the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private lands, subject to limitations provided by law.
SECTION 8. Congress shall enact a comprehensive federal land use policy that shall provide the minimum standards for the Federated Regions in the rational, holistic, and just approach for the allocation, utilization, development and management of the country’s land and water resources. It shall include the regulation of activities that bear impact on said resources. Regional Assemblies may legislate other standards in the pursuit of its activities, provided that they are not below the minimum standards set forth in the policy.
SECTION 4. The Congress shall, as soon as possible, determine by law the specific limits of forest lands and national parks, marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. Thereafter, such forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not be increased nor diminished, except by law. The Congress shall provide, for such period as it may determine, measures to prohibit logging in endangered forests and watershed areas.

SECTION 5. The State, subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national development policies and programs, shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands to ensure their economic, social, and cultural well-being.

The Congress may provide for the applicability of customary laws governing property rights or relations in determining the ownership and extent of ancestral domain.

SECTION 9. The Federal Republic shall, subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national development policies and programs, protect the rights of indigenous peoples to their ancestral domains and lands, and all resources found therein to ensure their economic, social, and cultural well-being.

The Congress may provide for the applicability of customary laws to govern their property rights or relations or determine the ownership and extent of ancestral domain.

SECTION 9. The Federal Republic shall, subject to the provisions of the Constitution and national development policies and programs, respect the primacy of customary laws of indigenous peoples to their ancestral domains and lands, and all resources found therein to ensure their economic, social, and cultural well-being.

Ancestral domains which are communal properties cannot be alienated.

SECTION 10. The Federal Government shall continue to undertake an agrarian reform program. It shall promulgate policies and guidelines for: SECTION 10. The Federal Government, in consultation with the Federated Regions, shall continue to undertake an agrarian reform program. It shall promulgate policies and guidelines for:
(a) Selection, acquisition, and distribution of lands for agrarian reform, which considers not only the total area of the lands, but also their contiguity and potential for productivity; (a) Selection, acquisition, and distribution of lands for agrarian reform, which considers not only the total area of the lands, but also their contiguity and potential for productivity;
(b) Identification of beneficiaries, which considers not only individuals, but whole families and communities and similar entities; (b) Identification of beneficiaries, which considers not only individuals, but whole families, communities, and similar entities;
(c) Provision of complete system of technical and financial support for beneficiaries and small land owners; and (c) Provision of a complete system of technical and financial support for beneficiaries and small land owners; and
(d) Creation of a system of incentives for voluntary offer of land for agrarian reform and for the investment of the proceeds of payments for lands covered by agrarian reform to promote industrialization, employment, and agriculture development. (d) Creation of a system of incentives to landowners for the voluntary offer of land for agrarian reform and the investment of its proceeds to promote industrialization, employment, and agriculture development.
SECTION 11. The Federal and Regional Governments shall regulate and prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed.
See Art XVI, General Provisions, Sec. 11. SECTION 12. SECTION 12.
(a) The ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations, cooperatives or associations, wholly- owned and managed by such citizens. (a) The ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations, cooperatives or associations, wholly-owned and managed by such citizens.
(b) The Congress shall regulate or prohibit monopolies in commercial mass media when the public interest so requires. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition therein shall be allowed. (b) Only Filipino citizens or corporations or associations at least seventy percent (70%) of whose voting capital is owned by such citizens, shall be allowed to engage in the advertising industry.
(c) The advertising industry is impressed with public interest, and shall be regulated by law for the protection of consumers and the promotion of the general welfare. (c) Congress may, by law, change the voting capital requirement under this section considering public welfare and national security, and for this purpose, such entities shall be managed by citizens of the Philippines.
(d) Only Filipino citizens or corporations or associations at least seventy percent of the capital of which is owned by such citizens shall be allowed to engage in the advertising industry.
(e) The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of entities in such industry shall be limited to their proportionate share in the capital thereof, and all the executive and managing officers of such entities must be citizens of the Philippines.
SECTION 13. See 1987 Constitution, this Article, Section 11.
SECTION 6. The use of property bears a social function, and all economic agents shall contribute to the common good. Individuals and private groups, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall have the right to own, establish, and operate economic enterprises, subject to the duty of the State to promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands. SECTION 14. The use of property bears a social function, and all economic agents shall contribute to the common good. Qualified individuals and private groups, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall have the right to own, establish, and operate economic enterprises, subject to the duty of the State to promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands. SECTION 16. The use of property bears a social function, and all economic agents shall contribute to the common good. Qualified individuals and private groups, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall have the right to own, establish, and operate economic enterprises, subject to the duty of the State to promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands.
SECTION 7. Save in cases of hereditary succession, no private lands shall be transferred or conveyed except to individuals, corporations, or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain. SECTION 6. Except as provided by federal law or in cases of hereditary succession, no private lands shall be transferred or conveyed except to individuals, corporations, or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain.
SECTION 8. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 7 of this Article, a natural-born citizen of the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private lands, subject to limitations provided by law. SECTION 7. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 3 of this Article, a natural-born citizen of the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private lands, subject to limitations provided by law.
SECTION 8. Congress shall enact a comprehensive federal land use policy that shall provide the minimum standards for the Federated Regions in the rational, holistic, and just allocation, utilization, development and management of the country’s land and water resources, including the regulation of such activities that bear impact on said resources. Regional Assemblies may legislate other standards in the pursuit of its activities, provided that they are not below the minimum standards set forth in the policy.
SECTION 9. The Congress may establish an independent economic and planning agency headed by the President, which shall, after consultations with the appropriate public agencies, various private sectors, and local government units, recommend to Congress, and implement continuing integrated and coordinated programs and policies for national development. Until the Congress provides otherwise, the National Economic and Development Authority shall function as the independent planning agency of the government.
SECTION 10. The Congress shall, upon recommendation of the economic and planning agency, when the national interest dictates, reserve to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens, or such higher percentage as Congress may prescribe, certain areas of investments. The Congress shall enact measures that will encourage the formation and operation of enterprises whose capital is wholly owned by Filipinos.
In the grant of rights, privileges, and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony, the State shall give preference to qualified Filipinos. The State shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments within its national jurisdiction and in accordance with its national goals and priorities. SECTION 15. The Federal Republic shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments in accordance with its national goals and priorities and the general welfare of the people. In the grant of rights, privileges, and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony, preference shall be given to qualified Filipinos. SECTION 17. The Federal Republic shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments in accordance with its national goals and priorities and the general welfare of the people. In the grant of rights, privileges, and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony, preference shall be given to qualified Filipinos.
SECTION 11. No franchise, certificate, or any other form of authorization for the operation of a public utility shall be granted except to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations organized under the laws of the Philippines at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens, nor shall such franchise, certificate, or authorization be exclusive in character or for a longer period than fifty years. Neither shall any such franchise or right be granted except under the condition that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congress when the common good so requires. The State shall encourage equity participation in public utilities by the general public. The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of any public utility enterprise shall be limited to their proportionate share in its capital, and all the executive and managing officers of such corporation or association must be citizens of the Philippines. SECTION 13. No franchise, certificate, or any other form of authorization for the operation of a public utility shall be granted except to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations organized under the laws of the Philippines, at least sixty percent of whose voting capital stocks are owned by such citizens; nor shall such franchise, certificate, or authorization be exclusive in character for a period longer than twenty-five years renewable for another twenty-five years. Neither shall any such franchise or right be granted except under the condition that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congress when the common good so requires. The State shall encourage equity participation in public utilities by the general public. The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of any public utility enterprise shall be limited and proportionate to their voting capital and all the executive and managing officers of such corporation or association must be citizens of the Philippines. SECTION 13. No franchise, certificate, or any other form of authorization for the operation of a public utility shall be granted except to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations organized under the laws of the Philippines, at least sixty percent (60%) of whose voting capital stocks are owned by such citizens; nor shall such franchise, certificate, or authorization be exclusive in character for a period longer than twenty-five (25) years, renewable for another twenty-five (25) years. Neither shall any such franchise or right be granted except under the condition that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congress when the common good so requires. The State shall encourage equity participation in public utilities by the general public. The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of any public utility enterprise shall be limited and proportionate to their voting capital.
Congress may by law change the voting capital requirement and period of the franchise under this section considering the interest of the people especially national security. Congress may, by law, change the voting capital requirement and period of the franchise under this section considering public welfare and national security, and for this purpose, such entities shall be managed by citizens of the Philippines.
SECTION 12. The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor, domestic materials and locally produced goods, and adopt measures that help make them competitive. SECTION 18. The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor, domestic materials, and locally produced goods, and adopt measures that help make them competitive. SECTION 20. The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor, domestic materials, and locally produced goods, and adopt measures that help make them competitive.
SECTION 13. The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms and arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity. SECTION 19. The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms and arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity. SECTION 21. The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms and arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity.
SECTION 14. The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals, managers, high-level technical manpower and skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields shall be promoted by the State. The State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its transfer for the national benefit. SECTION 20. The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino scientists, entrepreneurs, artists, professionals, managers, high-level technical manpower, and skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields shall be promoted by the State. The State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its transfer for the national benefit. SECTION 22. The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino scientists, entrepreneurs, artists, professionals, managers, high-level technical manpower, skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields shall be promoted by the State. The State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its transfer for the national benefit.
The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens, save in cases prescribed by law. SECTION 21. The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens except for those covered by International Agreements with reciprocity features and those prescribed by Federal law. SECTION 14. The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens save in cases provided by federal law and international agreements providing for reciprocity.
SECTION 15. (a) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty percent (60%) of the capital of which is owned by such citizens.
(b) Congress may, by law, change the voting capital requirement under this section considering public welfare and national security, and for this purpose, such entities shall be managed by citizens of the Philippines.
(c) No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third (1/3) of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
SECTION 15. The Congress shall create an agency to promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as instruments for social justice and economic development. SECTION 17. The Congress shall promote and protect the viability and growth of cooperatives as instruments for social justice and economic development. SECTION 19. The Congress shall promote and protect the viability and growth of cooperatives as instruments for social justice and economic development.
SECTION 16. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability. SECTION 22. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the tests of economic viability. SECTION 23. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the tests of economic viability.
SECTION 17. In times of national emergency, when the public interest so requires, the State may, during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately owned public utility or business affected with public interest. SECTION 16. In times of national emergency or when the public interest or national security so requires, the State may, during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest. SECTION 18. In times of national emergency or when the public interest or national security so requires, the State may, during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest.
SECTION 18. The State may, in the interest of national welfare or defense, establish and operate vital industries and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the Government. SECTION 23. The State may, in the interest of national welfare or defense, establish and operate vital industries and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the Government. SECTION 24. The State may, in the interest of national welfare or defense, establish and operate vital industries and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the Government.
SECTION 19. The State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed. SECTION 11. The Federal and Regional governments shall regulate and prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed.
SECTION 20. The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary authority, the members of whose governing board must be natural-born Filipino citizens, of known probity, integrity, and patriotism, the majority of whom shall come from the private sector. They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as may be prescribed by law. The authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit. It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions. SECTION 25. An independent central monetary authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit. It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions.
Until the Congress otherwise provides, the Central Bank of the Philippines, operating under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority.
SECTION 21. Foreign loans may only be incurred in accordance with law and the regulation of the monetary authority. Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the public. SECTION 24. Foreign loans by the Federal and Regional governments may only be incurred in accordance with federal law and the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the public.
SECTION 22. Acts which circumvent or negate any of the provisions of this Article shall be considered inimical to the national interest and subject to criminal and civil sanctions, as may be provided by law. SECTION 26. Acts which circumvent or negate any of the provisions of this Article shall be considered inimical to the national interest and subject to criminal and civil sanctions, as may be provided by law.
SECTION 25. An independent economic and planning agency headed by the President shall, after consultations with the appropriate public agencies, the private sector, and the Federated Regions, recommend to Congress and implement continuing integrated and coordinated programs and policies for national development.
The National Economic Development Authority, operating under existing laws, shall function as the independent planning agency of the Federal Government, unless otherwise provided by federal law.
SECTION 26.
(a) An independent central monetary authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit. It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions.
(b) The members of its governing board must be natural-born Filipino citizens, of known probity, integrity, and patriotism, the majority of whom shall come from the private sector. They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disqualifications as may be prescribed by law.
(c) The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, operating under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority, unless otherwise provided by federal law.
SECTION 27. Foreign and domestic loans by the Federal and Regional governments may only be incurred in accordance with federal law and with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas; Provided that for domestic loans of the Federated Regions, prior consultation with the Monetary Board to determine compliance with generally accepted standards of creditworthiness and fiscal stability, shall be sufficient. Information on these loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the public.

Social Justice and Human Rights

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article XIII

Article XVI

Article XVI

SECTION 1. SECTION 1.
SECTION 1. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good. (a) The Federal Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good.
To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of property and its increments. (b) To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of property and its increments. To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of property and its increments.
SECTION 2. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance. SECTION 2. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance. SECTION 2. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance.
Labor SECTION 3. SECTION 3.
SECTION 3. The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. (a) The Federal Republic shall protect the rights of labor, particularly the right to just and living wages, security of employment, organization, and redress of grievances. (a) The Federal Republic shall protect the rights of labor, particularly the right to just and living wages, security of employment, organization, and redress of grievances.
It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining and negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with law. They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage. They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law.
The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes, including conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace. The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns on investments, and to expansion and growth.
(b) No person shall be denied employment by reason of age, gender, political or religious belief, ethnicity, status, physical appearance or disability, and other conditions that amount to discrimination. (b) No person shall be denied employment by reason of age, gender, political or religious belief, ethnicity, status, physical appearance or disability, and other conditions that amount to discrimination.
(c) In all enterprises, industries and work opportunities, citizens of the Philippines shall be given employment preference when they possess the necessary qualifications. (c) In all enterprises, industries, and work opportunities, citizens of the Philippines shall be given employment preference when they possess the necessary qualifications.
(d) Citizens of the Philippines working overseas shall be protected by the Federal Republic against inhumane treatment by their employers. Those under investigation, or trial for commission of a crime shall be provided legal representation to ensure the protection of their rights. (d) Citizens of the Philippines working overseas shall be protected by the Federal Republic against inhumane treatment by their employers. Those under investigation, or trial for commission of a crime shall be provided legal representation to ensure the protection of their rights.
(e) The Federal Republic shall promote employment opportunities, and pursue the economic goal of full-employment. Persons with disability shall be provided opportunities for gainful employment and the private sector shall be given incentives to employ them. (e) The Federal Republic shall promote employment opportunities, and pursue the economic goal of full employment. Persons with disability shall be provided opportunities for gainful employment and the private sector shall be given incentives to employ them.
Agrarian and Natural Resources Reform AGRARIAN REFORM AND NATURAL RESOURCES
SECTION 4. SECTION 4.
SECTION 4. The State shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farmworkers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation. In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the right of small landowners. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing. (a) The Federal Republic shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farmworkers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation. In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the right of small landowners. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing. (a) The Federal Republic shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation. In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the right of small landowners. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing.
(b) All farmers and fisher folks have the right to a just share in the fruits of their labor, to be provided comprehensive financial and technical support, including technology and research, and to the preferential use and access to the natural resources of the Philippines. (b) All farmers and fisher folks have the right to a just share in the fruits of their labor, to be provided comprehensive financial and technical support, including technology and research, and to the preferential use and access to the natural resources of the Philippines.
(c) The State encourages the establishment of cooperative farm and fishing communities and shall supply, as far as practicable, the necessary support and empowerment to such entities. (c) The State encourages the establishment of cooperative farm and fishing communities and shall supply, as far as practicable, the necessary support and empowerment to such entities.
SECTION 5. The State shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well as cooperatives, and other independent farmers’ organizations to participate in the planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial, production, marketing, and other support services. SECTION 5. The Federal Republic shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well as cooperatives, and other independent farmers’ organizations to participate in the planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial, production, marketing, and other support services. SECTION 5. The Federal Republic shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well as cooperatives and other independent farmers’ organizations, to participate in the planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial, production, marketing, and other support services.
SECTION 6.
SECTION 6. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources, including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands. (a) The Federal Republic shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources, including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands. SECTION 6. The Federal Republic shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources, including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the rights of indigenous peoples to their ancestral lands.
The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law. (b) The Federal Republic may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law. The Federal Republic may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law.
SECTION 7. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local communities, to the preferential use of local marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other services. The State shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. SECTION 7. The Federal Republic shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local communities, to the preferential use of local marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other services. The Federal Republic shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. Fish workers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. SECTION 7. The Federal Republic shall protect the rights of subsistence fisherfolk, especially of local communities, to the preferential use of local marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore. It shall provide support to such fisherfolk through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other services. The Federal Republic shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fisherfolk against foreign intrusion. Fisherfolk shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources.
SECTION 8. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment creation, and privatization of public sector enterprises. Financial instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice. SECTION 8. The Federal Republic shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment creation, and privatization of public sector enterprises. Financial instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice. SECTION 8. The Federal Republic shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment creation, and privatization of public sector enterprises. Financial instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice.
Urban Land Reform and Housing URBAN LAND REFORM AND HOUSING
SECTION 9. The State shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the public sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost decent housing and basic services to underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlements areas. It shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such program the State shall respect the rights of small property owners. SECTION 9. The Federal Republic shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the public sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost decent housing and basic services to underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlements areas. It shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such program the State shall respect the rights of small property owners. SECTION 9. The Federal Republic shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the public sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost decent housing and basic services to underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlements areas. It shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such program, it shall respect the rights of small property owners.
SECTION 10.
SECTION 10. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwellings demolished, except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner. (a) Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwellings demolished, except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner. SECTION 10. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwellings demolished, except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner.
No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated. (b) No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated. No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated.
Health HEALTH
SECTION 11. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children. The State shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers. SECTION 11. The Federal Republic shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development and make universal health care available. Priority shall be given to the needs of the underprivileged, sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children. The Federal Republic and its Federated Regions shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers. SECTION 11. The Federal Republic shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development and make universal health care available. Priority shall be given to the needs of the underprivileged, sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children. The Federal Republic and its Federated Regions shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers.
SECTION 12. The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system and undertake appropriate health manpower development and research, responsive to the country’s health needs and problems. SECTION 12. The Federal Republic shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system, and undertake appropriate health manpower development and research, responsive to the country’s health needs and problems. SECTION 12. The Federal Republic shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system, and undertake appropriate health manpower development and research, responsive to the country’s health needs and problems.
SECTION 13. The State shall establish a special agency for disabled persons for rehabilitation, self-development and self-reliance, and their integration into the mainstream of society. SECTION 13. The Federal Republic shall maintain a special agency for disabled persons for rehabilitation, self-development and self-reliance, and their integration into the mainstream of society. SECTION 13. The Federal Republic shall maintain a special agency for disabled persons for rehabilitation, self-development and self-reliance, and their integration into the mainstream of society.
Women WOMEN
SECTION 14. The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation. SECTION 14. The Federal Republic shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation. SECTION 14. The Federal Republic shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation.
Role and Rights of People’s Organizations ROLE AND RIGHTS OF PEOPLE’S ORGANIZATIONS
SECTION 15. The State shall respect the role of independent people’s organizations to enable the people to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means. (a) The Federal Republic shall respect the role of independent people’s organizations to enable the people to exercise their right to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means. SECTION 15. (a) The Federal Republic shall respect the role of independent people’s organizations to enable the people to exercise their right to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means.
People’s organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public interest and with identifiable leadership, membership, and structure. (c) People’s organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public interest and with identifiable leadership, membership, and structure. (c) People’s organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public interest and with identifiable leadership, membership, and structure.
SECTION 16. The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decision-making shall not be abridged. The State shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms. (b) The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decision-making shall not be abridged. The Federal Republic shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms. (b) The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decision-making shall not be abridged. The Federal Republic shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms.
Human Rights
SECTION 17.
(1) There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on Human Rights. Superseded by Federal Commission on Human Rights
(2) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be natural- born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar. The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities of the Members of the Commission shall be provided by law.
(3) Until this Commission is constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights shall continue to exercise its present functions and powers.
(4) The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically and regularly released.
SECTION 18. The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions:
(1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights violations involving civil and political rights;
(2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure, and cite for contempt for violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court;
(3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the underprivileged whose human rights have been violated or need protection;
(4) Exercise visitorial powers over jails, prisons, or detention facilities;
(5) Establish a continuing program of research, education, and information to enhance respect for the primacy of human rights;
(6) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to promote human rights and to provide for compensation to victims of violations of human rights, or their families;
(7) Monitor the Philippine Government’s compliance with international treaty obligations on human rights;
(8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to determine the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its authority;
(9) Request the assistance of any department, bureau, office, or agency in the performance of its functions;
(10) Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law; and
(11) Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law.
SECTION 19. The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that should fall within the authority of the Commission, taking into account its recommendations.

Article XIV
Education, Science and Technology,
Arts, Culture, and Sports

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article XIV

Article XVII

Article XVII

Education
SECTION 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. SECTION 1. The Federal Republic shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. SECTION 1. The Federal Republic shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
SECTION 2. The State shall: SECTION 2. The Federal Republic shall: SECTION 2. The Federal Republic shall:
(1) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society; (a) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society; (a) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society;
(2) Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural right of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age; (b) Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the kindergarten, elementary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Without limiting the natural right of parents to rear their children, kindergarten, elementary, and secondary education are compulsory for all; (b) Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the kindergarten, elementary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Without limiting the natural right of parents to rear their children, kindergarten, elementary, and secondary education are compulsory for all;
(3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the underprivileged; (c) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the underprivileged; (c) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the underprivileged;
(4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and (d) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self- learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs, particularly those that respond to community needs; and (d) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs, particularly those that respond to community needs; and
(5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills. (e) Provide adult citizens, persons with disability, and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills. (e) Provide adult citizens, persons with disability, and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills.
SECTION 3. SECTION 3. SECTION 3.
(1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula. (a) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Federal Constitution, and Philippine History and Culture as part of the curricula. (a) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Federal Constitution, and Philippine History and Culture as part of the curricula.
(2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency. (b) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency. (b) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
(3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, without additional cost to the Government. (c) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, without additional cost to the Government. (c) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, without additional cost to the Government.
SECTION 4. SECTION 4. SECTION 4.
(1) The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions. (a) The Federal Republic recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions. (a) The Federal Republic recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions.
(2) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions. (b) Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions.
The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. (c) The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. (b) The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines.
No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents. (d) No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents.
(3) All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. (e) All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions educational institutions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law (c) All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law.
Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions subject to the limitations provided by law including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment. (f) Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions subject to the limitations provided by law including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment. (d) Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions subject to the limitations provided by law including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment.
(4) Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments, donations, or contributions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax. (g) Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments, donations, or contributions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax. (e) Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments, donations, or contributions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax.
(h) Accreditation may be pursued as a means to continually improve the institutions of education. Educational institutions on an autonomous status shall be given incentives. (f) Accreditation may be pursued as a means to continually improve the institutions of education. Educational institutions on an autonomous status shall be given incentives.
SECTION 5. SECTION 5. SECTION 5.
(1) The State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs. (a) The Federal Republic shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs. (a) The Federal Republic shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs.
(2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. (b) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. (b) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning.
(3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements. (c) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements. (c) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements.
(4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State. (d) The Federal Republic shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement and protect non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel. (d) The Federal Republic shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement and protect non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel.
(5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment. (e) The Federal Republic shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment. (e) The Federal Republic shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.
Language
SECTION 6. SECTION 6.
SECTION 6. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. (a) The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.
Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system. (b) Subject to provisions of law, the Federal Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino and English as a medium of official communication, and as language of instruction in the educational system. Subject to provisions of law, the Federal Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino and English as a medium of official communication, and as language of instruction in the educational system.
SECTION 7. SECTION 7.
SECTION 7. For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English. (a) For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino, and until otherwise provided by law, English. (a) For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino, and until otherwise provided by law, English.
(b) Filipinos have the right to protect and preserve their local language as part of the cultural treasures and heritage of the nation. (b) The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.
The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. (c) The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.
Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. (d) Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. (c) Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
SECTION 8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major regional languages, Arabic, and Spanish. SECTION 8. This Federal Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major languages of the different Federated Regions. SECTION 8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major languages of the different Federated Regions.
SECTION 9. SECTION 9.
SECTION 9. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives of various regions and disciplines which shall undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for the development, propagation, and preservation of Filipino and other languages. (a) The Federal Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives from each Federated Region which shall undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for the development, propagation, protection, and preservation of the Filipino language. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives from each Federated Region which shall undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for the development, propagation, protection, and preservation of the Filipino language.
(b) The Federal Republic shall protect and preserve regional languages and dialects as part of the cultural treasures and heritage of the nation. The Federal Republic shall protect and preserve regional languages and dialects as part of the cultural treasures and heritage of the nation.
Science and Technology
SECTION 10. SECTION 10.
SECTION 10. Science and technology are essential for national development and progress. The State shall give priority to research and development, invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate, and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities, and their application to the country’s productive systems and national life. (a) Science and technology are essential for development and progress. The Federal Republic shall give priority to research and development, invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate, and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities, and their application to the country’s productive systems and national life. Science and technology are essential for development and progress. The Federal Republic shall give priority to research and development, invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate, and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities, and their application to the country’s productive systems and national life.
(b) The Federal Government and the Federated Regions shall provide the necessary funding, education, training and support services to further develop the Filipino skill and talent, including knowledge transfers from other jurisdictions. The Federal Government and the Federated Regions shall provide the necessary funding, education, training and support services to further develop the Filipino skill and talent, including knowledge transfers from other jurisdictions.
SECTION 11. The Congress may provide for incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage private participation in programs of basic and applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-in- aid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided to deserving science students, researchers, scientists, inventors, technologists, and specially gifted citizens. SECTION 11. The Federal Congress may provide for incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage private participation in programs of basic and applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-in-aid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided to deserving science students, researchers, scientists, inventors, technologists, and specially gifted citizens. SECTION 11. The Congress may provide for incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage private participation in programs of basic and applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-in-aid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided to deserving science students, researchers, scientists, inventors, technologists, and specially gifted citizens.
SECTION 12. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the national benefit. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups, local governments, and community-based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology. SECTION 12. The Federal Republic shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the benefit of the people. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups, local governments, and community-based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology. SECTION 12. The Federal Republic shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the benefit of the people. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups, local governments, and community-based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology.
SECTION 13. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, particularly when beneficial to the people, for such period as may be provided by law. SECTION 13. The Federal Republic shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations. SECTION 13. The Federal Republic shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, for such period as may be provided by law.
Arts and Culture
SECTION 14.
SECTION 14. The State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression. (a) The preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression shall be nurtured by the Filipino and protected by the Federal Republic and its Federated Regions. SECTION 14. The Federal Republic and the Federated Regions shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression.
(b) The Federal Republic shall protect the historical and cultural heritage resources of the Filipino people in respect of the right of future generations to enjoy the same. The Federal Republic shall protect the historical and cultural heritage resources of the Filipino people in respect of the right of future generations to enjoy the same.
SECTION 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of the State. The State shall conserve, promote, and popularize the nation’s historical and cultural heritage and resources, as well as artistic creations. SECTION 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of the Federal Republic. It shall conserve, promote, and popularize the nation’s historical and cultural heritage and resources, as well as artistic creations. SECTION 15. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of the Federal Republic. It shall conserve, promote, and popularize the nation’s historical and cultural heritage and resources, as well as artistic creations.
SECTION 16. All the country’s artistic and historic wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation and shall be under the protection of the State which may regulate its disposition. SECTION 16. All the artistic and historic wealth of the Nation constitutes the cultural treasure of the people and shall be under the protection of the Federal Republic which may regulate its disposition in accordance with this Federal Constitution. SECTION 16. All the artistic and historic wealth of the nation constitutes the cultural treasure of the people and shall be under the protection of the Federal Republic which may regulate its disposition in accordance with the Constitution.
SECTION 17. The State shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of national plans and policies. SECTION 17. The Federal Republic shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of federal and regional plans and policies. SECTION 17. The Federal Republic shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of indigenous peoples to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions, and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of federal and regional plans and policies.
SECTION 18. The Congress may create a consultative body to advise the President on policies affecting indigenous cultural communities, the majority of the members of which shall come from such communities. See General Provisions, Section 9.
SECTION 18. SECTION 19.
(1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system, public or private cultural entities, scholarships, grants and other incentives, and community cultural centers, and other public venues. (a) The Federal Republic shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system, public or private cultural entities, scholarships, grants and other incentives, and community cultural centers, and other public venues. SECTION 18. The Federal Republic shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system, public or private cultural entities, scholarships, grants and other incentives, and community cultural centers, and other public venues.
(2) The State shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture. (b) The Federal Republic shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture. The Federal Republic shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture.
Sports
SECTION 19. SECTION 20. SECTION 19.
(1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. (a) The Federal Republic and its Federated Regions shall promote physical education, and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self- discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. The Federal Republic and the Federated Regions shall promote physical education, and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry.
(2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors. (b) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors. All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors.

Article XV
The Family

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article XVIII

Article XVIII

SECTION 1. The State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation. Accordingly, it shall strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its total development. SECTION 1. The Federal Republic recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation. Accordingly, it shall strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its total development. SECTION 1. The Federal Republic recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation. Accordingly, it shall strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its total development.
SECTION 2. Marriage, as an inviolable social institution, is the foundation of the family and shall be protected by the State. SECTION 2. Marriage, as an inviolable social institution, is the foundation of the family and shall be protected by the Federal Republic. SECTION 2. Marriage, as an inviolable social institution, is the foundation of the family and shall be protected by the Federal Republic.
SECTION 3. The State shall defend: SECTION 3. The Federal Republic shall defend: SECTION 3. The Federal Republic shall defend:
(1) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood; (a) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood; (a) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood;
(2) The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation, and other conditions prejudicial to their development; (b) The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation, and other conditions prejudicial to their development; (b) The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation, and other conditions prejudicial to their development;
(3) The right of the family to a family living wage and income; and (c) The right of the family to a family living wage and income; and (c) The right of the family to a family living wage and income; and
(4) The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them. (d) The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them. (d) The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them.
SECTION 4. The family has the duty to care for its elderly members but the State may also do so through just programs of social security. SECTION 4. The family has the duty to care for its elderly members, but the Federal Republic may also do so through just programs of social security. SECTION 4. The family has the duty to care for its elderly or vulnerable members, but the Federal Republic may also do so through just programs of social security.

Article XVI
General Provisions

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
SECTION 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue, with a sun and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and recognized by law. SECTION 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue, with a sun and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and recognized by law.
SECTION 2. The Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, or a national seal, which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum. SECTION 2. The Federal Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, or a national seal, which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall take effect upon its ratification by majority of the votes cast in every region in a national referendum.
SECTION 3. The State may not be sued without its consent. SECTION 3. The Federal Republic may not be sued without its consent.
SECTION 4. The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo military training and serve, as may be provided by law. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the State.
SECTION 4. In case any region fails to comply with its obligation, as provided for in the Constitution, which seriously undermines the sovereignty, territorial integrity, economy, or the unity of the Federal Republic, the President may intervene and take all measures necessary and proper to address the failure. Within thirty (30) days from the intervention, the President shall report to Congress the actions taken. Congress may take appropriate action on the report by a majority vote of its members voting jointly. If necessary, Congress may authorize the President to take further actions until the crisis is resolved.
SECTION 5. Congress may, by law, provide for the inclusion and governance of other territories which, by the freely adopted decision of a majority of its inhabitants, come to be part of the Federal Republic.
SECTION 6. The Federal Republic shall protect consumers from trade malpractices and from substandard or hazardous products.
SECTION 5.
(1) All members of the armed forces shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution.
(2) The State shall strengthen the patriotic spirit and nationalist consciousness of the military, and respect for people’s rights in the performance of their duty.
(3) Professionalism in the armed forces and adequate remuneration and benefits of its members shall be a prime concern of the State. The armed forces shall be insulated from partisan politics.
No member of the military shall engage directly or indirectly in any partisan political activity, except to vote.
(4) No member of the armed forces in the active service shall, at any time, be appointed or designated in any capacity to a civilian position in the Government including government-owned or controlled corporations or any of their subsidiaries.
(5) Laws on retirement of military officers shall not allow extension of their service.
(6) The officers and men of the regular force of the armed forces shall be recruited proportionately from all provinces and cities as far as practicable.
(7) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the armed forces shall not exceed three years. However, in times of war or other national emergency declared by the Congress, the President may extend such tour of duty.
SECTION 6. The State shall establish and maintain one police force, which shall be national in scope and civilian in character, to be administered and controlled by a national police commission. The authority of local executives over the police units in their jurisdiction shall be provided by law. See National Security and Public Order, Section 3.
SECTION 7. The State shall provide immediate and adequate care, benefits, and other forms of assistance to war veterans and veterans of military campaigns, their surviving spouses and orphans. Funds shall be provided therefor and due consideration shall be given them in the disposition of agricultural lands of the public domain and, in appropriate cases, in the utilization of natural resources.
SECTION 8. The State shall, from time to time, review to upgrade the pensions and other benefits due to retirees of both the government and the private sectors. SECTION 7. The Federal Republic shall regularly review and adjust, as may be justified by the circumstances, the pensions, and other benefits due to retirees of both the government and the private sectors.
SECTION 9. The State shall protect consumers from trade malpractices and from substandard or hazardous products.
SECTION 10. The State shall provide the policy environment for the full development of Filipino capability and the emergence of communication structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of the nation and the balanced flow of information into, out of, and across the country, in accordance with a policy that respects the freedom of speech and of the press. SECTION 8. The Federal Republic shall provide the policy environment for the full development of Filipino capability and the emergence of communication structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of the nation and the balanced flow of information into, out of, and across the country, in accordance with a policy that respects the freedom of speech and of the press.
SECTION 11. See Article XV, Section 12 See Section 12, in National Economy and Patrimony.
(1) The ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations, cooperatives or associations, wholly-owned and managed by such citizens.
The Congress shall regulate or prohibit monopolies in commercial mass media when the public interest so requires. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition therein shall be allowed.
(2) The advertising industry is impressed with public interest, and shall be regulated by law for the protection of consumers and the promotion of the general welfare.
Only Filipino citizens or corporations or associations at least seventy per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens shall be allowed to engage in the advertising industry.
The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of entities in such industry shall be limited to their proportionate share in the capital thereof, and all the executive and managing officers of such entities must be citizens of the Philippines.
SECTION 12. The Congress may create a consultative body to advise the President on policies affecting indigenous cultural communities, the majority of the members of which shall come from such communities. SECTION 9. The Congress may create a consultative body to advise the President on policies affecting indigenous peoples, the majority of the members of which shall come from such communities.

Article XVII
Amendments or Revisions

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
SECTION 1. Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution may be proposed by: SECTION 1. Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution may be proposed by: SECTION 1. Any amendment to, or revision of, the Constitution may be proposed by:
(a) People’s Initiative; (a) People’s initiative;
(1) The Congress, upon a vote of three-fourths of all its Members; or (b) The Federal Congress, upon a vote of three fourths (3/4) of all its members voting separately; or (b) The Federal Congress, upon a vote of three fourths (3/4) of all its members voting separately; or
(2) A constitutional convention. (c) The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds (2/3) of all its members, voting separately, call a constitutional convention, or by a majority votes of all its Members, submit to the electorate the question of calling such a convention. (c) A constitutional convention.
SECTION 2. Amendments to this Constitution may likewise be directly proposed by the people through initiative upon a petition of at least twelve per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters therein. No amendment under this section shall be authorized within five years following the ratification of this Constitution nor oftener than once every five years thereafter. SECTION 2. The exercise of People’s Initiative shall be provided for by Article VI of this Constitution. SECTION 2. The exercise of people’s initiative shall be as provided for by Article VI of the Constitution.
SECTION 3. The democratic and republican character of the government, its federal structure, its indissolubility and permanence shall not be subject to amendments or revisions. SECTION 4. The democratic and republican character of the government, its federal structure, its indissolubility and permanence shall not be subject to amendments or revisions.
The Congress shall provide for the implementation of the exercise of this right.
SECTION 3. The Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of all its Members, call a constitutional convention, or by a majority vote of all its Members, submit to the electorate the question of calling such a convention. SECTION 3. The Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds (2/3) of all its members voting separately, call a constitutional convention, or by a majority votes of all its Members, submit to the electorate the question of calling such a convention.
SECTION 4. Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution under Section 1 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the approval of such amendment or revision. SECTION 4. Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution shall be valid when ratified by a majority of votes cast in each Federated Region, including the Federated Cordillera Region and the Bangsamoro, in a plebiscite called for the purpose. SECTION 5. Any amendment to, or revision of, the Constitution shall be valid when ratified by a majority of votes cast in each Federated Region, including the Federated Region of the Cordilleras and the Bangsamoro, in a plebiscite called for the purpose.
Any amendment under Section 2 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the certification by the Commission on Elections of the sufficiency of the petition. SECTION 5. No amendment or revision shall be allowed within five (5) years from the ratification of this Constitution. Thereafter, no amendment or revision shall be allowed within five (5) years from the conduct of a plebiscite to amend or revise the Constitution. SECTION 6. No amendment or revision shall be allowed within five (5) years from the ratification of the Constitution. Thereafter, no amendment or revision shall be allowed within five (5) years from the conduct of a plebiscite to amend or revise the Constitution.

New: Article XIX
National Security and Public Order

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018
SECTION 1. The flag of the Philippines shall be red, white, and blue, with a sun and three stars, as consecrated and honored by the people and recognized by law.
SECTION 2. The Federal Congress may, by law, adopt a new name for the country, a national anthem, or a national seal, which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and traditions of the people. Such law shall take effect upon its ratification by majority of the votes cast in every Federated Region in a national referendum.
SECTION 3. The Federal Republic may not be sued without its consent.
SECTION 4.
(a) The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo military training and serve, as mandated by this Constitution and as may be provided by law. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the Federal Republic. SECTION 1. The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo military training and serve, as mandated by the Constitution and as may be provided by law. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the Federal Republic.
(b) It shall be the duty of the Armed Forces of the Philippines to protect and secure the sovereignty of the Federal Republic and its territory including its land, air, sea, space and cyberspace, preserve national peace and support social and economic development. It shall be the duty of the Armed Forces of the Philippines to protect and secure the sovereignty of the Federal Republic and its territory including its land, air, sea, space and cyberspace, preserve national peace, and support social and economic development.
SECTION 5. SECTION 2.
(a) All members of the Armed Forces shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution. (a) All members of the Armed Forces shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend the Constitution.
(b) The Armed Forces shall respect and uphold the rights of the people. (b) The Armed Forces shall respect and uphold the rights of the people.
(c) Professionalism in the Armed Forces and adequate remuneration and benefits of its members shall be a prime concern of the Federal Republic. (c) Professionalism in the Armed Forces and adequate remuneration and benefits of its members shall be a prime concern of the Federal Republic.
(d) The Armed Forces shall be insulated from partisan politics. No member of the Armed Forces shall engage directly or indirectly in any partisan political activity, except to vote. (d) The Armed Forces shall be insulated from partisan politics. No member of the Armed Forces shall engage directly or indirectly in any partisan political activity, except to vote.
(e) No member of the Armed Forces in the active service shall, at any time, be appointed or designated in any capacity to a civilian position in the government, including government-owned or controlled corporations or any of their subsidiaries. (e) No member of the Armed Forces in the active service shall, at any time, be appointed or designated in any capacity to a civilian position in the government, including government- owned or controlled corporations or any of their subsidiaries.
(f) Laws on retirement of officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and other armed services shall not allow extension of service except during times of war or other national emergency as may be declared by Congress or the President, as the case may be. (f) Laws on retirement of officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and other armed services shall not allow extension of service except during times of war or other national emergency as may be declared by Congress or the President, as the case may be.
(g) The officers and personnel of the regular force of the armed forces shall be recruited proportionately from all Federated Regions as far as practicable. (g) The officers and personnel of the regular force of the Armed Forces shall be recruited proportionately from all Federated Regions as far as practicable.
(h) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Chief, Philippine National Police, and the Commandant of the Philippine Coast Guard, shall not be less than two (2) years and not more than three (3) years from the time of appointment, unless sooner removed by the President for loss of trust and confidence. They shall not be extended beyond compulsory retirement age, except in times of war or other national emergency, as declared by Congress or the President, as the case may be. (h) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Chief of the Philippine Federal Police, and the Commandant of the Philippine Coast Guard, shall not be less than two (2) years and not more than three (3) years from the time of appointment, unless sooner removed by the President for loss of trust and confidence. They shall not be extended beyond compulsory retirement age, except in times of war or other national emergency, as declared by Congress or the President, as the case may be.
See General Provisions, Section 6. SECTION 6. The Police Force shall be Federal in scope and civilian in character, to be administered and controlled by a Federal Public Safety and Police Commission. SECTION 3. The Federal Republic shall maintain one police force which shall be federal in scope and civilian in character to be administered and controlled by a Federal Public Safety and Police Commission.
SECTION 7. The Federal Republic shall establish and maintain a Philippine Coast Guard as an armed and uniformed service responsible for maritime search and rescue, maritime law enforcement, maritime safety, maritime environmental protection, maritime security, and other function as may be provided by law. SECTION 4. The Federal Republic shall establish and maintain a Philippine Coast Guard as an armed and uniformed service responsible for maritime search and rescue, maritime law enforcement, maritime safety, maritime environmental protection, maritime security, and other functions as may be provided by law.
SECTION 8. The Federal Republic shall provide immediate and adequate healthcare, benefits, and other forms of assistance including preferential rights to housing and employment to war veterans and veterans of military campaigns, their surviving spouses and orphans. Funds shall be provided therefor and due consideration shall be given them in the disposition of agricultural lands of the public domain and, in appropriate cases, in the utilization of natural resources. SECTION 5. The Federal Republic shall provide immediate and adequate healthcare, benefits, and other forms of assistance including preferential rights to housing and employment, to war veterans and veterans of military campaigns, their surviving spouses and orphans. Funds shall be provided therefor and due consideration shall be given them in the disposition of agricultural lands of the public domain and, in appropriate cases, in the utilization of natural resources.
SECTION 9. The Federal Republic shall regularly review and adjust, as may be justified by the circumstances, the pensions and other benefits due to retirees of both the government and the private sectors.
SECTION 10. SECTION 6.
(a) The Federal Republic shall establish and continuously develop an effective information and cyber security infrastructure to protect itself and the people from unauthorized domestic or foreign intrusion such as cyberattacks and cyber warfare on its public utilities, cyber installations, and private entities. (a) The Federal Republic shall establish and continuously develop an effective information and cyber security infrastructure to protect itself and the people from unauthorized domestic or foreign intrusion such as cyberattacks and cyber warfare on its public utilities, cyber installations, and private entities.
(b) In the event of a cyberattack on any public utility, or private entity, or cyber installation, whose magnitude and speed clearly endangers the security of the Federal Republic, the President as Commander-in-Chief shall take all necessary actions to repel and quell the attack. (b) In the event of a cyberattack on any public utility, or private entity, or cyber installation, the magnitude and speed of which, clearly endangers the security of the Federal Republic, the President as Commander-in-Chief shall take all necessary actions to repel and quell the attack.
(c) As soon as the cyberattack has been quelled, the President shall report to Congress the nature of the attack and the actions taken to repel it. Congress shall take appropriate action on the report. (c) As soon as the cyberattack has been quelled, the President shall report to Congress the nature of the attack and the actions taken to repel it. Congress shall take appropriate action on the report.
(d) The Federal Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen, the sufficiency of the factual basis of the cyberattack and determine whether the action of the President is reasonable and proportionate to repel and quell the attack. The Federal Supreme Court must promulgate its decision within thirty (30) days of filing. (d) The Federal Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen, the sufficiency of the factual basis of the cyberattack and determine whether the action of the President is reasonable and proportionate to repel and quell the attack. The Federal Supreme Court must promulgate its decision within thirty (30) days from the time of filing.
SECTION 11. The Federal Republic shall have criminal jurisdiction over all those who violate its national and cyber security laws wherever the crime is committed. SECTION 7. The Federal Republic shall have criminal jurisdiction over all those who violate its national and cyber security laws wherever the crime is committed.
SECTION 12. SECTION 8.
(a) The Federal Republic shall develop an effective emergency preparedness, risk reduction, and response system for natural and manmade disasters and calamities. It shall train and maintain a Federal disaster response and relief corps under the Department of National Defense. The Federal Republic shall develop an effective emergency preparedness, risk reduction, and response system for natural and man-made disasters and calamities. It shall train and maintain a federal disaster response and relief corps under the Department of National Defense.
(b) The Federated Regions shall each establish their own regional disaster response and relief office which shall streamline and resolve hazards and risks in urban planning which contribute to disaster vulnerability. The Federated Regions shall each establish their own regional disaster response and relief office which shall streamline and resolve hazards and risks in urban planning which contribute to disaster vulnerability.
SECTION 13. During times of natural or manmade disasters and calamities, the Federated Region shall primarily respond through its local government units, officials, and agencies. The President through the Executive Departments shall provide relief and rehabilitative assistance to the affected region. SECTION 9. During times of natural or man-made disasters and calamities, the Federated Region shall primarily respond through its local government units, officials, and agencies. The President through the Executive Departments shall provide relief and rehabilitative assistance to the affected region.
SECTION 14. SECTION 10.
(a) The President and Congress, within six (6) months from assumption of office, shall update the National Security Policy in accordance with their assessment of current evolving and future threats as well as a national policy on the modernization of the armed forces and the National Police so that they can effectively and fully perform their Constitutional mandate. The President and Congress, within six (6) months from assumption of office, shall update the National Security Policy in accordance with their assessment of current evolving and future threats as well as a national policy on the modernization of the armed forces and the federal police so that they can effectively and fully perform their constitutional mandate.
(b) In the exercise of executive function, the investigation and prosecution of crimes is hereby vested in the National Prosecution Service under the Department of Justice. In the exercise of executive function, the investigation and prosecution of crimes is hereby vested in the Department of Justice.
SECTION 15. In case any region fails to comply with its obligation as provided for in the Constitution which seriously undermines the sovereignty, territorial integrity, economy, or the unity of the Federal Republic, the President may intervene and take all measures necessary and proper to address the failure. Within thirty (30) days from the intervention, the President shall report to Congress the actions taken. By a majority vote of its members voting jointly, Congress may take appropriate action on the report. In case it is necessary, Congress may authorize the President to take further actions until the crisis is resolved.

Transitory Provisions

1987 Constitution Draft Provisions
27 June 2018
ConCom Draft
9 July 2018

Article XVIII

Article XXI

Article XXII

SECTION 1. The first elections of Members of the Congress under this Constitution shall be held on the second Monday of May, 1987. SECTION 1. SECTION 1.
The first local elections shall be held on a date to be determined by the President, which may be simultaneous with the election of the Members of the Congress. It shall include the election of all Members of the city or municipal councils in the Metropolitan Manila area. (a) For an orderly transition to the new system of government as provided for in this Constitution, there shall be created a Federal Transition Commission which shall convene within five (5) days from the ratification of this Constitution, composed of the following members: (a) For an orderly transition to the new system of government as provided for in the Constitution, there shall be created a Federal Transition Commission, composed of the following members:
SECTION 2. The Senators, Members of the House of Representatives, and the local officials first elected under this Constitution shall serve until noon of June 30, 1992. 1. The President, who shall be the Federal Transition Commission Chairman; 1) The President, who shall be the Federal Transition Commission Chairman; and
Of the Senators elected in the election of 1992, the first twelve obtaining the highest number of votes shall serve for six years and the remaining twelve for three years. 2. Ten (10) members who are natural-born citizens of the Philippines, at least forty (40) years of age, and with proven probity, integrity, independence, and expertise in the fields of economy, law, fiscal management, governance or development. 2) Ten (10) members who are natural-born citizens of the Philippines, at least forty (40) years of age, and with proven probity, integrity, independence, and expertise in the fields of economy, law, fiscal management, governance, or development.
SECTION 3. All existing laws, decrees, executive orders, proclamations, letters of instructions, and other executive issuances not inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain operative until amended, repealed, or revoked. (b) There shall be a search committee to be headed by the Chairperson of the Federal Civil Service Commission, and four (4) other members representing the academe, business, marginalized sectors, and women. The President shall appoint the members of the committee. The committee shall search, screen, and recommend members of the Federal Transition Commission. The President shall appoint the members of the Federal Transition Commission from the list submitted by the search committee. (b) There shall be a search committee to be headed by the Chairperson of the Federal Civil Service Commission, and four (4) other members representing the academe, business, marginalized sectors, and women. The President shall appoint the members of the committee. The committee shall search, screen, and recommend to the President members of the Federal Transition Commission within thirty (30) days. The President shall appoint the members of the Federal Transition Commission.
SECTION 4. All existing treaties or international agreements which have not been ratified shall not be renewed or extended without the concurrence of at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. (c) The Federal Transition Commission shall promulgate its own rules of procedure within fifteen (15) days from the date it is convened. (c) The Federal Transition Commission shall convene within five (5) days from their constitution and promulgate its own rules of procedure.
SECTION 5. The six-year term of the incumbent President and Vice-President elected in the February 7, 1986 election is, for purposes of synchronization of elections, hereby extended to noon of June 30, 1992. (d) The Federal Transition Commission shall have the power to establish its office, appoint and hire its own officials and employees as it may be necessary. (d) The Federal Transition Commission shall have the power to establish its office, appoint and hire its own officials and employees, as may be necessary.
The first regular elections for the President and Vice-President under this Constitution shall be held on the second Monday of May, 1992. (e) The initial budget of the Federal Transition Commission shall be taken from the contingent fund of the Office of the President and from the savings of the Executive department. Its budget for the succeeding years shall be included in the budget of the Office of the President. (e) The initial budget of the Federal Transition Commission shall be taken from the contingent fund of the Office of the President and from the savings of the Executive Department. Its budget for the succeeding years shall be included in the budget of the Office of the President.
SECTION 6. The incumbent President shall continue to exercise legislative powers until the first Congress is convened. (f) All the living past Presidents may be consulted by the Transition Commission. (f) All the living past Presidents may be consulted by the Transition Commission.
SECTION 7. Until a law is passed, the President may fill by appointment from a list of nominees by the respective sectors the seats reserved for sectoral representation in paragraph (2), Section 5 of Article VI of this Constitution. (g) The Federal Transition Commission shall complete its mandate by June 30, 2022. (g) The Federal Transition Commission shall complete its mandate by June 30, 2022.
SECTION 8. Until otherwise provided by the Congress, the President may constitute the Metropolitan Authority to be composed of the heads of all local government units comprising the Metropolitan Manila area. SECTION 2. The Federal Transition Commission shall have the following powers and duties: SECTION 2. The Federal Transition Commission shall have the following powers and duties:
SECTION 9. A sub-province shall continue to exist and operate until it is converted into a regular province or until its component municipalities are reverted to the mother province. (a) To formulate and adopt a transition plan for the orderly shift to the new system of government as provided for in this Constitution. The transition plan shall be published in the Official Gazette and in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation, and any digital platform chosen by the Transition Commission; (a) To formulate and adopt a transition plan for the orderly shift to the new system of government as provided for in the Constitution. The transition plan shall be published in the Official Gazette, in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation, and any digital platform chosen by the Transition Commission;
SECTION 10. All courts existing at the time of the ratification of this Constitution shall continue to exercise their jurisdiction, until otherwise provided by law. The provisions of the existing Rules of Court, judiciary acts, and procedural laws not inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain operative unless amended or repealed by the Supreme Court or the Congress. (b) For the proper execution of the transition plan, it shall promulgate the necessary rules, regulations, orders, decrees, proclamations, and other issuances, do all acts to implement the same, and resolve all issues and disputes that may arise therefrom; (b) For the proper execution of the transition plan, it shall promulgate the necessary rules, regulations, orders, decrees, proclamations, and other issuances, do all acts to implement the same, and resolve all issues and disputes that may arise therefrom;
SECTION 11. The incumbent Members of the Judiciary shall continue in office until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or are removed for cause. (c) To organize, reorganize and fully establish the Federal Government and the governments of the Federated Regions, in accordance with this Constitution; (c) To organize, reorganize, and fully establish the Federal Government and the governments of the Federated Regions, in accordance with the Constitution; and
SECTION 12. The Supreme Court shall, within one year after the ratification of this Constitution, adopt a systematic plan to expedite the decision or resolution of cases or matters pending in the Supreme Court or the lower courts prior to the effectivity of this Constitution. A similar plan shall be adopted for all special courts and quasi-judicial bodies. (d) To exercise all powers necessary and proper to ensure a smooth, speedy and successful transition. (d) To exercise all powers necessary and proper to ensure a smooth, speedy, and successful transition.
SECTION 13. The legal effect of the lapse, before the ratification of this Constitution, of the applicable period for the decision or resolution of the cases or matters submitted for adjudication by the courts, shall be determined by the Supreme Court as soon as practicable. SECTION 3. The transition plan shall include the following: SECTION 3. The transition plan shall include the following:
SECTION 14. The provisions of paragraphs (3) and (4), Section 15 of Article VIII of this Constitution shall apply to cases or matters filed before the ratification of this Constitution, when the applicable period lapses after such ratification. (a) The respective transition plans for the different branches of the Federal Government, the independent Constitutional Bodies, the Federated Regions and other component units; (a) The respective transition plans for the different branches of the Federal Government, the independent Constitutional Commissions, the Federated Regions, and other component units;
SECTION 15. The incumbent Members of the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit shall continue in office for one year after the ratification of this Constitution, unless they are sooner removed for cause or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or appointed to a new term thereunder. In no case shall any Member serve longer than seven years including service before the ratification of this Constitution. (b) The fiscal management and administration plan including, but not limited to, generation of revenue and resources and their appropriation, allocation, and expenditure; (b) The fiscal management and administration plan including, but not limited to, generation of revenue and resources and their appropriation, allocation, and expenditure; and
SECTION 16. Career civil service employees separated from the service not for cause but as a result of the reorganization pursuant to Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 and the reorganization following the ratification of this Constitution shall be entitled to appropriate separation pay and to retirement and other benefits accruing to them under the laws of general application in force at the time of their separation. In lieu thereof, at the option of the employees, they may be considered for employment in the Government or in any of its subdivisions, instrumentalities, or agencies, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. This provision also applies to career officers whose resignation, tendered in line with the existing policy, had been accepted. (c) The establishment of mechanisms for people’s participation in the transition. (c) The establishment of mechanisms for people’s participation in the transition.
SECTION 17. Until the Congress provides otherwise, the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred thousand pesos; the Vice-President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, two hundred forty thousand pesos each; the Senators, the Members of the House of Representatives, the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and the Chairmen of the Constitutional Commissions, two hundred four thousand pesos each; and the Members of the Constitutional Commissions, one hundred eighty thousand pesos each. SECTION 4. The Federal Transition Commission shall ensure people’s participation by involving faith-based, civil society, indigenous peoples, sectoral, non-government and other community based organizations in the transition, especially in the selection and screening of appointees to the new government. SECTION 4. The Federal Transition Commission shall ensure people’s participation by involving faith-based, civil society, indigenous peoples, sectoral, non-government, and other community-based organizations in the transition, especially in the selection and screening of appointees to the new government.
SECTION 18. At the earliest possible time, the Government shall increase the salary scales of the other officials and employees of the National Government. SECTION 5. The first national, regional and local elections under this Federal Constitution to elect the President, Vice President, Regional Senators, District Representative, Proportional Party Representative, regional and local officials shall be on the 2nd Monday of May 2022. They shall assume office at noon on June 30, 2022. SECTION 5. The first national, regional and local elections under the Constitution to elect the President, Vice President, Regional Senators, District Representatives, Proportional Party Representatives, regional and local officials shall be on the 2nd Monday of May 2022. They shall assume office at noon on June 30, 2022.
SECTION 19. All properties, records, equipment, buildings, facilities, and other assets of any office or body abolished or reorganized under Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 or this Constitution shall be transferred to the office or body to which its powers, functions, and responsibilities substantially pertain. SECTION 6. The term of the President and Vice-President, which shall end on June 30, 2022, shall not be extended. SECTION 6. The term of the President and Vice President, which shall end on June 30, 2022, shall not be extended.
SECTION 20. The first Congress shall give priority to the determination of the period for the full implementation of free public secondary education. SECTION 7. All laws, decrees, executive orders, proclamations, rules, regulations, letters of instructions, and other executive and judicial issuances not inconsistent with this Federal Constitution shall remain valid until amended or repealed. SECTION 7. All laws, decrees, executive orders, proclamations, rules, regulations, letters of instructions, and other executive and judicial issuances not inconsistent with the Constitution shall remain valid until amended or repealed.
SECTION 21. The Congress shall provide efficacious procedures and adequate remedies for the reversion to the State of all lands of the public domain and real rights connected therewith which were acquired in violation of the Constitution or the public land laws, or through corrupt practices. No transfer or disposition of such lands or real rights shall be allowed until after the lapse of one year from the ratification of this Constitution. SECTION 8. All officials of the government under the 1987 Constitution shall continue to hold their office and exercise their respective powers and duties under such terms and conditions as may be provided in the transition plan. SECTION 8. All officials of the government under the 1987 Constitution shall continue to hold their office and exercise their respective powers and duties under such terms and conditions as may be provided in the transition plan.
SECTION 22. At the earliest possible time, the Government shall expropriate idle or abandoned agricultural lands as may be defined by law, for distribution to the beneficiaries of the agrarian reform program. SECTION 9. Permanent employees of the government separated from service as a result of the reorganization of government shall be entitled to separation pay, early retirement pay or retirement pay, or other appropriate benefits accruing to them under existing laws. In lieu thereof, at the option of the employees, they may be considered for employment in the Federal Government, the Regional Government or in any of its subdivisions, instrumentalities, or agencies, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries in accordance with the existing civil service laws, the corporate charters of these corporations, and other relevant statutes. SECTION 9. Permanent employees of the government separated from service as a result of the reorganization of government shall be entitled to separation pay, early retirement pay, or retirement pay, or other appropriate benefits accruing to them under existing laws. In lieu thereof, at the option of the employees, they may be considered for employment in the Federal Government, the Regional Government, or in any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries in accordance with the existing civil service laws, the corporate charters of these corporations, and other relevant statutes.
SECTION 23. Advertising entities affected by paragraph (2), Section 11 of Article XVI of this Constitution shall have five years from its ratification to comply on a graduated and proportionate basis with the minimum Filipino ownership requirement therein. SECTION 10. All properties, records, equipment, buildings, facilities, and other assets of any office or body abolished or reorganized under this Constitution shall be transferred to the office or body to which its powers, functions, and responsibilities substantially pertain. SECTION 10. All properties, records, equipment, buildings, facilities, and other assets of any office or body abolished or reorganized under the Constitution shall be transferred to the office or body to which its powers, functions, and responsibilities substantially pertain.
SECTION 24. Private armies and other armed groups not recognized by duly constituted authority shall be dismantled. All paramilitary forces including Civilian Home Defense Forces not consistent with the citizen armed force established in this Constitution, shall be dissolved or, where appropriate, converted into the regular force.
SECTION 25. After the expiration in 1991 of the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America concerning Military Bases, foreign military bases, troops, or facilities shall not be allowed in the Philippines except under a treaty duly concurred in by the Senate and, when the Congress so requires, ratified by a majority of the votes cast by the people in a national referendum held for that purpose, and recognized as a treaty by the other contracting State.
SECTION 26. The authority to issue sequestration or freeze orders under Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 in relation to the recovery of ill-gotten wealth shall remain operative for not more than eighteen months after the ratification of this Constitution. However, in the national interest, as certified by the President, the Congress may extend said period.
A sequestration or freeze order shall be issued only upon showing of a prima facie case. The order and the list of the sequestered or frozen properties shall forthwith be registered with the proper court. For orders issued before the ratification of this Constitution, the corresponding judicial action or proceeding shall be filed within six months from its ratification. For those issued after such ratification, the judicial action or proceeding shall be commenced within six months from the issuance thereof.
The sequestration or freeze order is deemed automatically lifted if no judicial action or proceeding is commenced as herein provided.
SECTION 27. This Constitution shall take effect immediately upon its ratification by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite held for the purpose and shall supersede all previous Constitutions.
Ratified: February 2, 1987

The Consultative Committee to Review the 1987 Constitution

  • Chairman – Chief Justice Reynato S. Puno (Ret.)
  • Mr. Arthur N. Aguilar
  • Atty. Susan U. Ubalde-Ordinario
  • Prof. Eddie Mapag Alih
  • Atty. Randolph C. Parcasio
  • Fr. Ranhilio C. Aquino
  • Sen. Aquilino Quilinging Pimentel Jr.
  • Atty. Antonio B. Arellano
  • Associate Justice Bienvenido U. Reyes (Ret.)
  • Atty. Ali Pangalian M. Balindong
  • Commodore Rex C. Robles (Ret.)
  • Dr. Virgilio C. Bautista
  • Atty. Rodolfo D. Robles
  • Atty. Ferdinand M. Bocobo
  • Atty. Victor S. de la Serna
  • Atty. Reuben R. Canoy
  • Prof. Edmund S. Tayao
  • Atty. Roan I. Libarios
  • Prof. Julio C. Teehankee
  • Atty. Jose Martin A. Loon
  • Atty. Laurence B. Wacnang
  • Associate Justice Antonio Eduardo B. Nachura (Ret.)
  • Attested and Certified by Committee Secretary Atty. Gideon V. Mortel

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