# Calculus Outline – Louis M. Leithold 6/e

1. FUNCTIONS OF A SINGLE REAL VARIABLE – Limits and continuity – Complete discussion includes proofs of all theorems in the body of the chapter as well as in the exercises. Horizonal asymptotes, limits at infinity, vertical asymptotes and infinite limits are discussed.
1. The limit of a function (56)
2. Theorems on limits of functions (64)
3. One side limits (73)
4. Infinite limits (78)
5. Limits at infinity (88)
6. Continuity of a function at a number (98)
7. Continuity of a composite function and continuity on an interval (107)
8. Continuity of the trigonometric functions and the squeeze theorem (114)
9. Proofs of some theorems on limits of functions (Supplementary) (122)
10. Additional theorems on limits of functions (131)

2. The derivative and differentiation – The classical geometrical interpretation of the derivative, detailed derivative evaluation, concise proofs of theorems on differentiation, derivatives of trig functions, and the Chain Rule.
1. The tangent line and the derivative (139)
2. Differentiability and continuity (148)
3. Theorems on differentiation of algebraic functions (156)
4. Rectilinear motion and the derivative as a rate of change (163)
5. Derivatives of the trigonometric functions (173)
6. The derivative of a composite function and the Chain Rule (181)
7. The derivative of the power function for rational exponents (190)
8. Implicit differentiation (195)
9. Related rates (199)
10. Derivatives of higher order (205)
3. Function extrema Techniques of graphing The differential – Theorems on extrema and graph behavior motivate a complete method for function graph sketching. Differentials are treated in this section, adjacent to differentiation subject matter.
1. Maximum and minimum function values (217)
2. Applications involving an absolute extremum on a closed interval (224)
3. Rolle’s theorem and the Mean-value theorem (230)
4. Increasing and decreasing functions and the first-derivative test (236)
5. Concavity and points of inflection (241)
6. The second-derivative test for relative extrema (249)
7. Drawing the sketch of the graph of a function (254)
8. Further treatment of absolute extrema and applications (260)
9. The differential (269)
10. Numerical solutions Newton’s method (277)
4. The definite integral Integration – Indefinite integration, area, the definite integral, the Fundamental Theorem of the Calculus. Trapezoidal and parabolic rules, formulas for error bound estimation.
1. Antidifferentiation (286)
2. Some techniques of antidifferentiation (295)
3. Differential equations and rectilinear motion (303)
4. Area (312)
5. The definite integral (324)
6. Properties of the definite integral (331)
7. The mean-value theorem for integrals (340)
8. The fundamental theorems of the calculus (344)
9. Area of a plane region (352)
10. Numerical integration (supplementary) (359)
5. Applications of the definite integral – Evaluation techniques and principles are discussed, supported by concise motivation and explanations. Applications in physics.
1. Volumes by slicing, disks, and washers (374)
2. Cylindrical-shell method (383)
3. Length of arc of the graph of a function (388)
4. Center of mass of a rod (394)
5. Centroid of a plane region (400)
6. Work (407)
7. Liquid pressure (supplementary) (413)
6. Inverse, logarithmic and exponential functions – Includes a concise definition of irrational numbers. Applications.
1. Inverse functions (422)
2. Inverse function theorems Derivative of a function inverse (431)
3. The natural logarithmic function (439)
4. Logarithmic differentiation Integrals yielding ln(x) (449)
5. The natural exponential function (455)
6. Other exponential and logarithmic functions (463)
7. Applications (469)
8. First-order linear differential equations (supplementary) (481)
9. Review (492)
7. Inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions.
1. The inverse trigonometric functions (496)
2. Derivatives of the inverse trigonometric functions (503)
3. Integrals yielding inverse trigonometric functions (510)
4. Hyperbolic functions (514)
5. Inverse hyperbolic functions (supplementary) (523)
6. Review (527)
8. Techniques of integration – Computational methods encountered in practical problems. Crucial examples illustrate the principles involved.
1. Integration by parts (531)
2. Of powers of sine and cosine (537)
3. Of powers of tangent, cotangent, secant and cosecant (542)
4. By trigonometric substitution (545)
5. By partial fractions: linear (551)
6. By partial fractions: quadratic denom. fact (561)
7. Miscellaneous substitutions (566)
8. Integrals yielding inverse hyperbolic functions (supplementary) (570)
9. Review (575)
9. The conic sections and polar coordinates.
1. The parabola and translation of axes (578)
2. The ellipse (586)
3. The hyperbola (594)
4. Rotation of axes (604)
5. Polar coordinates (608)
6. Graphs of equations in polar coordinates (614)
7. Area of a region in polar coordinates (625)
8. A unified treatment of conic sections and polar equations of conics (629)
9. Tangent lines of polar curves (supplementary) (638)
10. Review (647)
10. Indeterminate forms, improper integrals, and Taylor’s formula – Concepts supporting a discussion on infinite series are assayed. Probability density function.
1. The indeterminate form 0/0 (651)
2. Other indeterminate forms (660)
3. Improper integrals with infinite limits of integration (665)
4. Other improper integrals (673)
5. Taylor’s formula (677)
6. Review (684)
11. INFINITE SERIES – Sequences and infinite series – Theorems. Tests for convergence of a series.
1. Sequences (687)
2. Monotonic and bounded sequences (694)
3. Infinite series of constant terms (700)
4. Infinite series: Four theorems (709)
5. Infinite series of positive terms (713)
6. The integral test (723)
7. Alternating series (726)
8. Absolute and conditional convergence Ratio test Root test (731)
9. Summary of convergence tests for infinite series (738)
10. Review (740)
12. Power series.
1. Introduction to power series (743)
2. Differentiation of power series (750)
3. Integration of power series (760)
4. Taylor series (767)
5. The binomial series (776)
6. Review (780)
13. VECTOR-VALUED AND MULTIVARIABLE FUNCTIONS – Vectors in the plane and parametric equations.
1. Vectors in the plane (783)
2. Dot product (794)
3. Vector-valued functions Parametric equations (801)
4. Calculus of vector-valued functions (808)
5. Length of arc (814)
6. The unit tangent and normal vectors Arc length as parameter (820)
7. Curvature (824)
8. Plane motion (832)
9. Tangential and normal components of acceleration (838)
10. Review (842)
14. 3D Vectors and solid analytic geometry.
1. R^3 space (846)
2. Vectors in R^3 (852)
3. Planes (861)
4. Lines in R^3 (868)
5. Cross product (873)
6. Cylinders and surfaces of revolution (883)
8. Curves in R^3 (894)
9. Cylindrical and spherical coordinates (901)
10. Review (905)
15. INTRODUCTION TO MULTIVARIATE CALCULUS – Differential calculus of functions of more than one variable – Extensions of 1V calculus.
1. Functions of more than one variable (908)
2. Limits (917)
3. Continuity (927)
4. Partial derivatives (931)
5. Differentiability Total differentials (939)
6. The Chain Rule (949)
7. Higher-order partial derivatives (956)
8. Sufficient conditions for differentiability (963)
9. Review (968)
16. Directional derivatives, gradients, and applications of partial derivatives – Vector fields. Solution of extrema problems and Lagrange multipliers. Exact differential equation solution.
1. Directional derivatives and gradients (972)
2. Tangent planes and normals to surfaces (979)
3. Extrema of functions of two variables (983)
4. Lagrange multipliers (997)
5. Obtaining a function from its gradient and exact differentials (1003)
6. Review (1011)
17. Multiple integration
1. The double integral (1014)
2. Double and iterated integrals (1019)
3. Center of mass and moments of inertia (1026)
4. The double integral in polar coordinates (1031)
5. Area of a surface (1036)
6. Triple integrals (1041)
7. Triple integrals in cylindrical and spherical coordinates (1046)
8. Review (1052)
18. Introduction to the calculus of vector fields – Intuitive appproach to problems in physics and engineering.
1. Vector fields (1056)
2. Line integrals (1064)
3. Line integrals independent of path (1072)
4. Green’s theorem (1082)
5. Surface integrals (1095)
6. Gauss’s Divergence Theorem and Stokes’s Theorem (1102)
7. Review (1108)

1. FUNCTIONS OF A SINGLE REAL VARIABLE – Limits and continuity – Complete discussion includes proofs of all theorems in the body of the chapter as well as in the exercises. Horizonal asymptotes, limits at infinity, vertical asymptotes and infinite limits are discussed.
1. The limit of a function (56)
2. Theorems on limits of functions (64)
3. One side limits (73)
4. Infinite limits (78)
5. Limits at infinity (88)
6. Continuity of a function at a number (98)
7. Continuity of a composite function and continuity on an interval (107)
8. Continuity of the trigonometric functions and the squeeze theorem (114)
9. Proofs of some theorems on limits of functions (Supplementary) (122)
10. Additional theorems on limits of functions (131)
2. The derivative and differentiation – The classical geometrical interpretation of the derivative, detailed derivative evaluation, concise proofs of theorems on differentiation, derivatives of trig functions, and the Chain Rule.
1. The tangent line and the derivative (139)
2. Differentiability and continuity (148)
3. Theorems on differentiation of algebraic functions (156)
4. Rectilinear motion and the derivative as a rate of change (163)
5. Derivatives of the trigonometric functions (173)
6. The derivative of a composite function and the Chain Rule (181)
7. The derivative of the power function for rational exponents (190)
8. Implicit differentiation (195)
9. Related rates (199)
10. Derivatives of higher order (205)
3. Function extrema Techniques of graphing The differential – Theorems on extrema and graph behavior motivate a complete method for function graph sketching. Differentials are treated in this section, adjacent to differentiation subject matter.
1. Maximum and minimum function values (217)
2. Applications involving an absolute extremum on a closed interval (224)
3. Rolle’s theorem and the Mean-value theorem (230)
4. Increasing and decreasing functions and the first-derivative test (236)
5. Concavity and points of inflection (241)
6. The second-derivative test for relative extrema (249)
7. Drawing the sketch of the graph of a function (254)
8. Further treatment of absolute extrema and applications (260)
9. The differential (269)
10. Numerical solutions Newton’s method (277)
4. The definite integral Integration – Indefinite integration, area, the definite integral, the Fundamental Theorem of the Calculus. Trapezoidal and parabolic rules, formulas for error bound estimation.
1. Antidifferentiation (286)
2. Some techniques of antidifferentiation (295)
3. Differential equations and rectilinear motion (303)
4. Area (312)
5. The definite integral (324)
6. Properties of the definite integral (331)
7. The mean-value theorem for integrals (340)
8. The fundamental theorems of the calculus (344)
9. Area of a plane region (352)
10. Numerical integration (supplementary) (359)
5. Applications of the definite integral – Evaluation techniques and principles are discussed, supported by concise motivation and explanations. Applications in physics.
1. Volumes by slicing, disks, and washers (374)
2. Cylindrical-shell method (383)
3. Length of arc of the graph of a function (388)
4. Center of mass of a rod (394)
5. Centroid of a plane region (400)
6. Work (407)
7. Liquid pressure (supplementary) (413)
6. Inverse, logarithmic and exponential functions – Includes a concise definition of irrational numbers. Applications.
1. Inverse functions (422)
2. Inverse function theorems Derivative of a function inverse (431)
3. The natural logarithmic function (439)
4. Logarithmic differentiation Integrals yielding ln(x) (449)
5. The natural exponential function (455)
6. Other exponential and logarithmic functions (463)
7. Applications (469)
8. First-order linear differential equations (supplementary) (481)
9. Review (492)
7. Inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions.
1. The inverse trigonometric functions (496)
2. Derivatives of the inverse trigonometric functions (503)
3. Integrals yielding inverse trigonometric functions (510)
4. Hyperbolic functions (514)
5. Inverse hyperbolic functions (supplementary) (523)
6. Review (527)
8. Techniques of integration – Computational methods encountered in practical problems. Crucial examples illustrate the principles involved.
1. Integration by parts (531)
2. Of powers of sine and cosine (537)
3. Of powers of tangent, cotangent, secant and cosecant (542)
4. By trigonometric substitution (545)
5. By partial fractions: linear (551)
6. By partial fractions: quadratic denom. fact (561)
7. Miscellaneous substitutions (566)
8. Integrals yielding inverse hyperbolic functions (supplementary) (570)
9. Review (575)
9. The conic sections and polar coordinates.
1. The parabola and translation of axes (578)
2. The ellipse (586)
3. The hyperbola (594)
4. Rotation of axes (604)
5. Polar coordinates (608)
6. Graphs of equations in polar coordinates (614)
7. Area of a region in polar coordinates (625)
8. A unified treatment of conic sections and polar equations of conics (629)
9. Tangent lines of polar curves (supplementary) (638)
10. Review (647)
10. Indeterminate forms, improper integrals, and Taylor’s formula – Concepts supporting a discussion on infinite series are assayed. Probability density function.
1. The indeterminate form 0/0 (651)
2. Other indeterminate forms (660)
3. Improper integrals with infinite limits of integration (665)
4. Other improper integrals (673)
5. Taylor’s formula (677)
6. Review (684)
11. INFINITE SERIES – Sequences and infinite series – Theorems. Tests for convergence of a series.
1. Sequences (687)
2. Monotonic and bounded sequences (694)
3. Infinite series of constant terms (700)
4. Infinite series: Four theorems (709)
5. Infinite series of positive terms (713)
6. The integral test (723)
7. Alternating series (726)
8. Absolute and conditional convergence Ratio test Root test (731)
9. Summary of convergence tests for infinite series (738)
10. Review (740)
12. Power series.
1. Introduction to power series (743)
2. Differentiation of power series (750)
3. Integration of power series (760)
4. Taylor series (767)
5. The binomial series (776)
6. Review (780)
13. VECTOR-VALUED AND MULTIVARIABLE FUNCTIONS – Vectors in the plane and parametric equations.
1. Vectors in the plane (783)
2. Dot product (794)
3. Vector-valued functions Parametric equations (801)
4. Calculus of vector-valued functions (808)
5. Length of arc (814)
6. The unit tangent and normal vectors Arc length as parameter (820)
7. Curvature (824)
8. Plane motion (832)
9. Tangential and normal components of acceleration (838)
10. Review (842)
14. 3D Vectors and solid analytic geometry.
1. R^3 space (846)
2. Vectors in R^3 (852)
3. Planes (861)
4. Lines in R^3 (868)
5. Cross product (873)
6. Cylinders and surfaces of revolution (883)
8. Curves in R^3 (894)
9. Cylindrical and spherical coordinates (901)
10. Review (905)
15. INTRODUCTION TO MULTIVARIATE CALCULUS – Differential calculus of functions of more than one variable – Extensions of 1V calculus.
1. Functions of more than one variable (908)
2. Limits (917)
3. Continuity (927)
4. Partial derivatives (931)
5. Differentiability Total differentials (939)
6. The Chain Rule (949)
7. Higher-order partial derivatives (956)
8. Sufficient conditions for differentiability (963)
9. Review (968)
16. Directional derivatives, gradients, and applications of partial derivatives – Vector fields. Solution of extrema problems and Lagrange multipliers. Exact differential equation solution.
1. Directional derivatives and gradients (972)
2. Tangent planes and normals to surfaces (979)
3. Extrema of functions of two variables (983)
4. Lagrange multipliers (997)
5. Obtaining a function from its gradient and exact differentials (1003)
6. Review (1011)
17. Multiple integration
1. The double integral (1014)
2. Double and iterated integrals (1019)
3. Center of mass and moments of inertia (1026)
4. The double integral in polar coordinates (1031)
5. Area of a surface (1036)
6. Triple integrals (1041)
7. Triple integrals in cylindrical and spherical coordinates (1046)
8. Review (1052)
18. Introduction to the calculus of vector fields – Intuitive appproach to problems in physics and engineering.
1. Vector fields (1056)
2. Line integrals (1064)
3. Line integrals independent of path (1072)
4. Green’s theorem (1082)
5. Surface integrals (1095)
6. Gauss’s Divergence Theorem and Stokes’s Theorem (1102)
7. Review (1108)